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Great Britain. Some, we know, have imagined this of the colonists, and others may, perhaps, have industriously propagated it; to raise groundless and unreasonable jealousies of them; but it is so far from the truth, that we apprehend the colonies would refuse it if offered to them, and would even deem it the greatest misfortune to be obliged to accept it. They are far from being insensible of their happiness, in being connected with the mother country, and of the mutual benefits derived from it to both. It is, therefore, the indispensable duty of all, to cultivate and establish a mutual harmony, and to promote the intercourse of good offices between them; and while both have the free enjoyment of the rights of our happy constitution, there will be no grounds of envy and discontent in the one, nor of jealousy and mistrust in the other.

It is the glory of the British constitution, that it hath its foundation in the law of God and nature. It is an essential, natural right, that a man shall quietly enjoy, and have the sole disposal of his own property. This right is adopted into the constitution. This natural and constitutional right is so familiar to the American subjects, that it would be difficult, if possible, to convince them, that any necessity can render it just, equitable and reasonable, in the nature of things, that the Parliament should impose duties, subsidies, talliages, and taxes upon them, internal or external, for the sole purpose of raising a revenue. The reason is obvious; because, they cannot be represented, and therefore, their consent cannot be constitutionally had in Parliament.

Samuel Adams, Writings (N. Y., 1894), I. 134-136.

5. The Hour for Americans to

Arouse (1768)

A young Boston lawyer who was sent to England to state the wrongs of America there.

What are the present sentiments of the inhabitants of North America ? Discern they not most truly, and smart they not most severely under the errors of government? The disease is known and felt; but where is the remedy,—where is the physician? For the people to ask counsel is deemed treasonable; assemble themselves to consult, is denominated rebellion. Thus would some potentates terrify mankind with a few sounding technical expressions.

If ever there was a time, this is the hour, for Americans to rouse themselves and exert every ability. Their all is a hazard, and the die of fate spins doubtful! In vain do we talk of magnanimity and heroism; in vain do we trace a

descent from the worthies of the earth, if we inherit not the spirit of our ancestors. Who is he, who boasteth of his patriotism? Has he vanquished luxury, and subdued the worldly pride of his heart? Is he not yet drinking the poisonous draught and rolling the sweet morsel under his tongue ? He, who cannot conquer the little vanity of his heart, and deny the delicacy of a debauched palate, let him lay his hand upon his mouth, and his mouth in the dust.

Now is the time for his people to summon every aid, human and divine; to exhibit every moral virtue, and call forth every Christian grace. The wisdom of the serpent, the innocence of the dove, and the intrepidity of the lion, with the blessing of God, will yet save us from the jaws of destruction.

Where is the boasted liberty of Englishmen, if property may be disposed of, charters suspended, assemblies dissolved, and every valued right annihilated, at the uncontrollable will of an external power? Does not every man, who feels one ethereal spark yet glowing in his bosom, find his indignation kindle at the bare imagination of such wrongs? What would be our sentiments were this imagination realized ? ...

Who has the front to ask, wherefore do you complain? Who dares assert every thing worth living for is not lost when a nation is enslaved? Are not pensioners, stipendiaries, and salary men (unknown before), hourly multiplying on us, to riot in the spoils of miserable America ? Does not every eastern gale waft us some new insect, even of that devouring kind, which eat up every green thing? Is not the bread taken out of the children's mouths, and given unto the dogs? Are not our estates given to corrupt sycophants, without a design, or even a pretence of soliciting our assent, and our lives put into the hands of those whose tender mercies are cruelties? Has not an authority in a distant land, in the most public manner, proclaimed a right of disposing of the all of Americans? In short, what have we to lose-what have we to fear? Are not our distresses more than we can bear; and to finish all, are not our cities, in a time of profound peace, filled with standing armies, to preclude us from that last solace of the wretched —to open their mouths in complaint, and send .forth their cries in bitterness of heart?

But is there no ray of hope? Is not Great Britain inhabited by the children of those renowned barons who waded through seas of crim

son gore to establish their liberty; and will they 1. not allow us, their fellow-men, to enjoy that free

dom which we claim from nature, which is confirmed by our constitution, and which they pretend so highly to value? Were a tyrant to conquer us, the chains of slavery, when opposition should become useless, might be supportable;

but to be shackled by Englishmen,-by our equals, -is not to be borne!

By the sweat of our brow, we earn the little we possess: from nature we derive the common rights of man-and by charter we claim the liberties of Britons! Shall we, dare we, pusillanimously surrender our birthright? Is the obligation to our fathers discharged—is the debt we owe posterity paid? Answer me, thou coward, who hidest thyself in the hour of trial. If there is no reward in this life, no prize of glory in the next, capable of animating thy dastard soul; think and tremble, thou miscreant, at the whips and stripes thy master shall lash thee with on earth—and the flames and scorpions thy second master shall torment thee with hereafter!

Oh, my countrymen! what will our children say, when they read the history of these times, should they find we tamely gave away, without one noble struggle, the most invaluable of earthly blessings? As they drag the galling chain, will they not execrate us? If we have any respect for things sacred; any regard to the dearest treasure on earth-if we have one tender sentiment for posterity; if we would not be despised by the whole world—let us, in the most open, solemn manner, and with determined fortitude, swear we will die, if we cannot live freemen!

Be not lulled, my countrymen, with vain imaginations, or idle fancies. To hope for the pro


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