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List of Frontispieces

VOL. I. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
From a

steel engraving by CHARLES Nicolas Cochin. Made in Paris about

the year 1782. VOL. II. GEORGE WASHINGTON

From an original picture in the possession of I. SEB. DE FRANCA, Esq., of Devonshire Place, London..

VOL. III. THOMAS JEFFERSON

Reproduced from GILBERT STUART's picture in the Museum of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me.

VOL. IV. ANDREW JACKSON

From a daguerreotype taken between
1839 and 1845. This daguerreotype is the
only one known to have ever been taken
of PRESIDENT JACKSON. Now in the pos-
session of WILLIAM MACBETH, of New

York City.
VOL V. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

From a photograph taken about 1860 by
HESLOR of Chicago, from the original
negative owned by GEORGE B. AYERS of
Philadelphia.

CHAPTER I-EXPECTATIONS FROM

THE NEW WORLD (1492-1000)

From the first vague notion that Asia could be reached by sailing westward, Europe expected to realize vast advantages in territory, trade, and loot. When after 1500 it slowly recognized that America was a vast continent or continents, the maritime nations of western Europe began to lay the foundation for future colonies. The prime value of America consisted in what could be squeezed from the few organized native nations; and when that resource was exhausted, colonists began to depend on the natural resources of crops, timber, and mines. Visions of future extension of power to the Pacific stirred the hearts of such explorers and adventurers as Sir Francis Drake. By the year 1600 the world began to recognize the relation of the two continents to the Pacific Ocean and the possibilivies of transcontinental trade. The germs of later territorial rivalries were perceived in the English voyage to California, and in Raleigh's desperate and fruitless efforts to find a land of gold for England on the north coast of South America.

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