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union of the whole is impossible, the attempt of a part must be madness; as those colonies, that did not join the rebellion, would join the mother country in suppressing it. When I say such a union is impossible, I mean, without the most grievous tyranny and oppression. People, who have property in a country which they may lose, and privileges which they may endanger, are generally disposed to be quiet, and even to bear much, rather than hazard all. While the government is mild and just, while important civil and religious rights are secure, such subjects will be dutiful and obedient. The waves do not rise but when the winds blow.

Benjamin Franklin Works (Boston, 1840), IV. 2542 passim.

15. Declaration of Rights and Griev- . ances of the Colonists in America

(1765)
By THE STAMP Act CONGRESS

(Written by John Dickinson)

This Congress, representing nine colonies, sat in New York to protest against the British Stamp Act.

The members of this congress, sincerely devoted, with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to his majesty's person and government, inviolably attached to the present happy establishment of the protestant succession, and with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the present and impending misfortunes of the British colonies on this continent; having considered as maturely as time would permit, the circumstances of said colonies, esteem it our indispensable duty to make the following declarations, of our humble opinions, respecting the most essential rights and liberties of the colonists, and of the grievances under which they labor, by reason of several late acts of parliament.

Ist. That his majesty's subjects in these colonies, owe the same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain, that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body, the parliament of Great Britain.

2d. That his majesty's liege subjects in these colonies are entitled to all the inherent rights and privileges of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain.

3d. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted rights of Englishmen, that no taxes should be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.

4th. That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances, cannot be represented in the house of commons in Great Britain.

5th. That the only representatives of the people of these colonies, are persons chosen therein, by themselves; and that no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures.

6th. That all supplies to the crown, being free gifts of the people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British constitution, for the people of Great Britain to grant to his majesty the property of the colonists.

7th. That trial by jury is the inherent and inviolable right of every British subject in these colonies.

8th. That the late act of parliament, entitled, an act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other duties in the British colonies and plantations in America, &c., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies, and the said act, and several other acts, by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty beyond its ancient limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists.

9th. That the duties imposed by several late acts of parliament, from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies, will be extremely burthensome and grievous, and from the scarcity of specie, the payment of them absolutely impracticable. Ioth. That as the profits of the trade of these

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colonies ultimately centre in Great Britain, to pay for the manufactures which they are obliged to take from thence, they eventually contribute very largely to all supplies granted there to the crown.

11th. That the restrictions imposed by several late acts of parliament, on the trade of these colonies, will render them unable to purchase the manufactures of Great Britain.

12th. That the increase, prosperity, and happiness of these colonies, depend on the full and free enjoyment of their rights and liberties, and an intercourse, with Great Britain, mutually affectionate and advantageous.

13th. That it is the right of the British subjects in these colonies, to petition the king or either house of parliament.

Lastly, That it is the indispensable duty of these colonies to the best of sovereigns, to the mother country, and to themselves, to endeavor, by a loyal and dutiful address to his majesty, and humble application to both houses of parliament, to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other acts of parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the admiralty is extended as aforesaid, and of the other late acts for the restriction of the American commerce.

M. Hill, Liberty Documents (N. Y., 1901), 155-158.

16. Protests Against the Stamp Act

(1765)
By SAMUEL ADAMS

Boss of the Town Meeting in Boston, and in the thick of the Revolutionary struggle to its end.

WHILE the Houses of Representatives were joyntly consulting the most prudent as well as the legal Steps, the Peoples Minds grew more & more disturbd, under the Apprehension of the Loss of their essential Rights. Events took place much like some that we hear of in the quiet Citys of London & Westminster, tho it must be confessed there have been some Transactions for which even those Mother Cities, have not seen occasion to afford Precedents since the year 88, from which glorious Era neither their Right of Representation, nor of Jurys nor any other of their essential Rights & Charter Privileges have ever been invaded.

The most publick Marks of Contempt & Ignomy have been put upon the Gentlemen appointed to distribute the Stamps through America & even in the West India Islands where it was least expected. The People in Boston began by hanging up their Stamp Master in Effigie. This was done under the Great Tree at the South Part of the Town, which now is called the Tree of Liberty.

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