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Enemy was near it;—an intercepted Letter that never was wrote ;—or, in short, any Thing else that will elate or depress the Minds of the difcerning Multitude, ferves the Purpose of the Bear or the Bull to sink or raise the Price of Stocks, according as he wishes either to buy or fell. And by these vile Means the Wretch, who perhaps the other Day came up to London in the Waggon to be an Under-Clerk or a Message Boy in a Warehouse, acquires such a Fortune as fets him on a Par with the greatest Nobles of the Land.

4. The News-Writers are a fourth Species of political Firebrands: A Species which abounds in this Country more than in any other; for as Men are in this Kingdom allowed greater Liberties to say, or write what they please; fo likewife is the Abuse of that Blessing carried to a higher Pitch. In fact these People may be truly said to trade in Blood: For a War is their Harvest; and a Gazette Extraordinary produces a Crop of an hundred Fold: How then can it be fuppofed, that they can ever become the Friends of Peace? .

5. The Jobbers and Contractors of all Kinds and of all Degrees for our Fleets and Armies ;the Clerks and Paymasters in the several Departments belonging to War;-and every other Agent, who has the fingering of the public Money, may be said to constitute a distinct Brood of Vultures, who prey upon their own Species,

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and fatten on human Gore. It would be endless to recount the various Arts and Stratagems by which these Devourers have amassed to themselves astonishing Riches, from very slender Beginnings, through the Continuance and Extent of the War: ..

6. Many of the Dealers in Exports and Imports, and several of the Traders in the Colonies, are too often found to be aslistant in promoting the Cry for every new War; and, when War is undertaken, in preventing any Overtures towards a Peace. Do you not fathom the Depth of this Policy ? you are not able to comprehend it. Alas! it is but too easily explained; and when explained, but too well proved from Experience. The general Interest of Trade, and the Interest of particular Traders, are very distinct Things; nay, are very often quite opposite to each other. The Interest of general Trade arises from general Industry; and, therefore can only be promoted by the Arts of Peace:

7. The Land and Sea Officers, of course, are the invariable Advocates for War. Indeed it is their Trade, their Bread, and the sure way to get Promotion; therefore no other Language can be expected from them: And yet, to do them Justice, of all the Adversaries of Peace, they are the fairest and most open in their Proceedings. ... - But after all, What have I been doing? and how can I hope for Profelytes by this kind of Writing ?-It is true, in regard to the Points attempted to be proved, I have certainly proved that, “Neither Princes nor People can be Gainers "by the most successful Wars :-Trade in par"ticular will make its way to the Country where "Goods are manufactured the best and cheapest: “_But conquering Nations neither manufacture "well nor cheap:-And consequently must sink in “Trade in Proportion as they extend in Con"quest.” These Things are now incontestibly clear, if any Thing ever was so. But, alas! Who will thank me for such Lessons as these? The seven Claffes of Men just enumerated certainly will not; and as to the Mob, the blood-thirsty Mob, no Arguments, and no Demonstrations whatever, can persuade them to withdraw their Veneration from their grim Idol, the God of Slaughter....

Josiah Tucker, Address and Appeal (Gloucester, 1775), 83-96 passim.

14. Protection of Settlers of the

West (1764)
By BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

(See note above, p. 170.) The Remarker thinks, that our people in America, "finding no check from Canada, would extend themselves almost without bounds into the inland parts, and increase infinitely from all causes.” The very reason he assigns for their so extending, and which is indeed the true one, (their being "invited to it by the pleasantness, fertility, and plenty of the country,”) may satisfy us, that this extension will continue to proceed as long as there remains any pleasant, fertile country within their reach. And if we even suppose them confined by the waters of the Mississippi westward, and by those of St. Lawrence and the Lakes to the northward, yet still we shall leave them room enough to increase, even in the manner of settling now practised there, till they amount to perhaps a hundred millions of souls. This must take some centuries to fulfil; and in the mean time this nation must necessarily supply them with the manufactures they consume; because the new settlers will be employed in agriculture; and the new settlements will so continually draw off the spare hands from the old, that our present colonies will not, during the period we have mentioned, find themselves in a condition to manufacture, even for their own inhabitants, to any considerable degree, much less for those who are settling behind them. ...

We have already fourteen separate governments on the maritime coast of the continent; and, if we extend our settlements, shall probably have as many more behind them on the inland side. Those we now have are not only under

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different governors, but have different forms of government, different laws, different interests, and some of them different religious persuasions, and different manners.

Their jealousy of each other is so great, that, however necessary a union of the colonies has long been, for their common defence and security against their enemies, and how sensible soever each colony has been of that necessity; yet they have never been able to effect such a union among themselves, nor even to agree in requesting the mother country to establish it for them. Nothing but the immediate command of the crown has been able to produce even the imperfect union, but lately seen there, of the forces of some colonies. If they could not agree to unite for their defence against the French and Indians who were perpetually harassing their settlements, burning their villages, and murdering their people; can it reasonably be supposed there is any danger of their uniting against their own nation, which protects and encourages them, with which they have so many connexions and ties of blood, interest, and affection, and which, it is well known, they all love much more than they love one another?

In short, there are so many causes that must operate to prevent it, that I will venture to say, a union amongst them for such a purpose is not merely improbable, it is impossible. And if the

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