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creatures. By this, man, as he stands in relation to man simply, hath liberty to do what he lists; it is a liberty to evil as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, and in time to be worse than brute beasts : omnes sumus licentia deteriores. This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal, it may also be termed moral, in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral law, and the politic covenants and constitutions, amongst men themselves. This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard (not only of your goods, but) of your lives, if need be. Whatsoever crosseth this, is not authority, but a distemper thereof. - This liberty is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority; it is of the same kind of liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. The woman's own choice makes such a man her husband; yet being so chosen, he is her lord, and she is to be subject to him, yet in a way of liberty, not of bondage; and a true wife accounts her subjection her honor and freedom, and would not think her condition safe and free, but in her subjection to her husband's authority. ... On the other side, ye know who they are that complain of this yoke and say, let us break their bands, etc., we will not have this man to rule over us. Even so, brethren, it will be between you and your magistrates. If you stand for your natural corrupt liberties, and will do what is good in your own eyes, you will not endure the least weight of authority, but will murmur, and oppose, and be always striving to shake off that yoke; but if you will be satisfied to enjoy such civil and lawful liberties, such as Christ allows you, then will you quietly and cheerfully submit unto that authority which is set over you, in all the administrations of it, for your good. Wherein, if we fail at any time, we hope we shall be willing (by God's assistance) to hearken to good advice from any of you, or in any other way of God; so shall your liberties be preserved, in upholding the honor and power of authority amongst you.

James Savage (Ed.), John Winthrop's History of New England from 1630 to 1649 (Boston, 1826), II. 228-229 passim.

14. An Early Appeal for Women's

Rights (1645)

(Nathaniel Ward)

(See note above, p. 102.)

SHOULD I not keep Promise in speaking a little to Womens fashions, they would take it unkindly: I was loath to pester better matter with such stuff; I rather thought it meet to let them stand by themselves, like the Quae Genus in the Grammar, being Deficients, or Redundants, not to be brought under any Rule: I shall therefore make bold for this once, to borrow a little of their loose tongued Liberty, and mispend a word or two upon their long-wasted, but short-skirted Patience: a little use of my stirrup will do no harm.

Ridentem dicere verum, quid prohibet?

Gray Gravity itself can well beteam,
That Language be adapted to the Theme.
He that to Parrots speaks, must parrotise:
He that instructs a fool, may act th' unwise.

It is known more than enough, that I am neither Nigard, nor Cinick, to the due bravery of the true Gentry: if any man mislikes a bullymong drossock more than I, let him take her for his labour: I honour the Woman that can honour herself with her attire: a good Text always deserves a fair Margent; I am not much offended if I see a trimme far trimmer than she that wears it; in a word, whatever Christianity or Civility will allow, I can afford with London measure: but when I hear a nugiperous Gentledame inquire what dress the Queen is in this week : what the nudiustertian fashion of the Court; with egge to be in it in all haste, what ever it be; I look at her as the very gizzard of a trifle, the product of a quarter of a cypher, the epitome of Nothing, fitter to be kickt, if she were of a kickable substance, than either honour'd or humour'd.

To speak moderately, I truly confess it is beyond the ken of my understanding to conceive, how those Women should have any true Grace, or valuable vertue, that have so little wit, as to disfigure themselves with such exotick garbes, as not only dismantles their native lovely lustre, but transclouts them into gantbar-geese, ill-shapenshotten shellfish, Egyptian Hyeroglyphicks, or at the best into French flurts of the pastery, which a proper English Woman should scorne with? her heels: it is no marvel they wear drailes on the hinder part of their heads, having nothing as it seems in the fore-part, but a few Squirrils brains to help them frisk from one ill-favour'd fashion to another.

I have often heard divers Ladies .vent loud feminine complaints of the wearisome varieties

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so large a continent abounding with so many excellent lakes, of so mighty extent, from whence issue so many rivers, such variable kinds of soil, rich in fructification of all manner of seeds or grain, so likely to abound in minerals of all sorts, and other rich gain of commodities not yet to be known, besides furs of several kinds, both useful and merchantable, proper for foreign markets.

To descend from those generals to more particulars. What can be more pleasing to a generous nature than to be exercised in doing public good ? especially when his labor and industry tends to the private good and reputation of himself and posterity; and what monument so durable, as erecting of houses, villages and towns? and what more pious than advancing of Christian religion amongst people who have not known the excellency thereof? But, seeing works of piety and public good are in this age rather commended by all than acted by any, let us come a little nearer to that which all hearken unto, and that forsooth is profit.

Be it so. Art thou a laborer, that desirest to take pains for the maintenance of thyself?—the employments in plantations gives thee not only extraordinary wages, but opportunity to build some house or cottage, and a proportion of land agreeable to thy fortunes to set thyself when either lameness or other infirmities seize on thee. Hast thou a wife and a family ?-by plantation

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