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absolutely abstract affirmed afford animal antecedent applied Aristotle attributes belongs Bucephalus called categorical categorical syllogism characters cognition compre conceived conclusion consciousness considered constitute contained Contradiction contradictory conversant coordinate copula definition denominated denote determined discriminate disjunctive proposition disjunctive syllogism distinction distinguished divided division doctrine enounced example exclusively existence Explication expressed extensive quantity external faculty form of thought former free agent genera genus gism greater number hypothetical syllogism inasmuch individual induction inference intensive judgment knowledge language laws of Identity Laws of Thought likewise Logic logicians matter meaning middle term Modus ponendo tollens nature necessarily necessary negation negative object opposite particular plurality predicate premises principle probation proposition quadruped qualities quantity of comprehension quantity of extension Reason and Consequent reciprocal regard relation responsible agent rule signification simple sion sophism Sorites species sphere stand subordinate subsumption sumption thing tion truth unity universal various viewed whole words
Página 99 - ... and from the parts to the whole, in the quantity 5 ° siai " a ' of extension, or from the whole to the parts and from the parts to the whole, in the quantity of comprehension. In each quantity there is a deductive, and in each quantity there is an inductive, inference ; and if the reasoning under either of these two quantities were to be omitted, it ought, perhaps, to have been the one which the logicians have exclusively cultivated.
Página 55 - ... out of relation to any concrete or individual realities, their relative nature at once reappears ; for we find it altogether impossible to represent any of the qualities expressed by a concept, except as attached to some individual and determinate object, and their whole generality consists in this, that though we must realize them in thought under some singular of the class, we may do it under any.
Página 25 - It would be enough to say and show, that the inference in question involved a circulus in concludendo, and the refutation is at once understood and admitted. It is in like manner that one lawyer will express to another the ratio decidendi of a case in a single technical expression ; while their clients will only perplex themselves and others in their attempts to set forth the merits of their cause. Now, if Logic did nothing more than establish a certain number of decided and decisive rules in reasoning,...
Página 58 - Now, language is to the mind precisely what the arch is to the tunnel. The power of thinking and the power of excavation are not dependent on the word in the one case, on the mason-work in the other; but without these subsidiaries, neither process could be carried on beyond its rudimentary commencement.
Página 138 - XOffff/iOC) seems originally, like ratio, to have denoted a computation — an adding up ; and, like the greater part of the technical terms of Logic in general, was borrowed by Aristotle from the mathematicians. This primary meaning of these two words...
Página 55 - ... singular of the class, we may do it under any. Thus, for example, we cannot actually represent the bundle of attributes contained in the concept man as an absolute object by itself, and apart from all that reduces it from a general cognition to an individual representation. We cannot figure in imagination any object adequate to the general notion or term man; for the man to be here imagined must be neither tall nor short, neither fat nor lean, neither black nor white, neither man nor woman, neither...
Página 40 - The principle of Identity (principium Identitatis) expresses the relation of total sameness in XIV. Law of Identity. . ., , , which a concept stands to all, and the relation of partial sameness in which it stands to each, of its constituent characters. In other words, it declares the impossibility of thinking the concept and its characters as reciprocally unlike.
Página 13 - This expression requires explanation ; we come therefore to the second question, — What is meant by Thought as Thought ? To answer this question, let us remember what has just been said of the act constitutive of thought, — viz., that it is the recognition of a thing as coming under a concept ; in other words, the marking an object by an attribute or attributes previously known as common to sundry objects, and to which we have accordingly given a general name.
Página 137 - I say, without Reasoning, we should have been limited to a knowledge of what is given by Immediate Intuition ; we should have been unable to draw any inference from this knowledge, and have been shut out from the discovery of that countless multitude of truths, which, though of high, of paramount importance, are not self-evident.