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who introduced him to one of the private meetings of the Zoological Society. At the beginning of 1834, he re-entered the Bristol College, where he remained for two years and a half. Though his studies were sometimes interrupted by ill health, his steady perseverance enabled him to make good progress, especially in mathematics, in which he attained the highest place. Professor F. W. Newman, at that time one of the masters, writes to the editor : “ You are quite right in thinking that your brother Philip was my pupil, first in Bristol, afterwards in Manchester. Naturally I did not see much of him out of class; but he certainly made unusual advances to me, and I soon gained a perception how very transparent was his nature-guifeless and ardent-a nature with which I had warm sympathy, even while (as I must confess) I had a tender sorrow and pity that he was being educated for the Unitarian ministry. But by the time of my going to Manchester, this had evaporated with me. I there saw him without any refracting or distracting medium, and much admired the earnest purpose, solid character, sweetness and gentleness of temper, combined with originality, free from eccentricity or juvenile arrogance." On another occasion Mr. Newman wrote : “When I heard of his eminence in natural history, 1 thought it to be a natural result of his youthful tendencies. ... From very early years he possessed the highly valuable quality of minute and persevering diligence, with great love of order and precision."

In the year 1836, the British Association for the Promotion of Science visited Bristol, and Philip was very useful in helping to arrange the valuable conchological collection at the Institution, his judgment in the discrimination of species being highly estimated by the very able curator. The meeting was an occasion of intense enjoyment to him, to which he often referred. His father had aided in the preparations for it with his usual enthusiasm, and at his breakfast-table were assembled some of its most distinguished members, who did not forget Philip when they met him in after years.

With all his love of natural history, the ministry was his

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heart's desire : and he could have had no better training for it than he had at home. This was, perhaps, the happiest period of his father's life : his colleague, the Rev. R. B. Aspland, M.A., lightened his burden by efficient help; his plans of usefulness were now cordially appreciated, and were bearing fruit; and he was able to devote himself more uninterruptedly to the study of the Gospels in which he delighted. The first edition of his "Apostolical Harmony" was published in 1835, and the “Dissertations" bore evidence of his long study of everything relating to the Holy Land that was accessible to him. “ He seemed almost as familiar with the respective places, as if he himself had visited them : and this gave a peculiar vividness to his details. He found the morning the most uninterrupted time for his labours, and often rose between four and five, spending the hours before eight o'clock in close but refreshing study. This was to him the most delightful portion of the day; and when he joined his family at breakfast, his face would wear an expression not easy to be forgotten, as he would say, 'I have been with the Lord in Galilee this morning. Those who saw him might indeed take “knowledge of' him that he ‘had been with Jesus'” (“ Memoir of Dr. L. Carpenter,” p. 394).

The unfeigned faith that was in the father characterized the son, who was sharing his spirit, and was deeply interested in his work. It was in the summer vacation of this year (August 3, 1835) that Dr. Carpenter wrote to his sister: “We have been very happy in our family meeting. The children have been to each other, and to us, as their parents would desire ; and there is a good spirit among them, and manifestation of stable principle, which it is a great comfort to witness. To-day we have had the singular satisfaction of all--parents and six childrenuniting together at the Lord's Supper. . . . As to Philip, on conversing with him in family council on Saturday, I find, as I expected, that his bias is very decided towards the ministry.”

When Philip left home the following year, he wrote a letter to the superintendent of the Sunday school, testifying to the interest he had taken in it, since he began to teach there, when twelve years old. Throughout life, boys had his love; and to





bring them to God was his chief delight. “Are we not,” he writes, “ most happy when we are doing good? Are we not truly happy in the hope of teaching the children what may lead them nearer to the happiness of heaven? And are we not happy in exchanging with them that love which savours of the spirit of Christ? ... What if the children are sometimes impatient and discontented ? Are we never to endeavour to follow Him, who was 'firm, yet mild’? I speak my own narrow experience when I say that, when the children are most troublesome, it is because I have not sufficiently walked with them in the spirit of love." He concludes with expressing his gratitude for all the kindness he had experienced from his fellow teachers.

In October, 1836, his brother William was entering his last session at Edinburgh, and it was resolved that Philip should accompany him, that he might benefit by the great advantages which that university offered to a lover of science: and it was felt to be a good thing that the two brothers, who had many of the same tastes and pursuits, should be together. His mother writes : “Philip has been everything to us, and exceedingly beloved by every one, as well as a great cheerer of our grave circle by his cheerfulness.” His sisters were then working hard at an exhausting profession—that from which home seems no refuge ; for in a boarding-school the responsibility is always pressing-and his lively, sportive ways, as well as his ready helpfulness and sympathy, made his company very refreshing to them. Their letters show in how many ways he was missed.


COLLEGE LIFE : 1836–1841.

ÆT. 17-21.

In the early days of Reform, Dr. Carpenter hoped that he might send his younger sons to Oxford or Cambridge; but a generation elapsed before these universities were open to Nonconformists. Many of their class-fellows at the Bristol College obtained scholarships and high university honours, and Philip, from his perseverance and mathematical talent, would have distinguished himself at Cambridge; his session at Edinburgh had, however, its peculiar advantages. The two brothers arrived before the commencement of the session. William had arranged to deliver some lectures to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, and he writes : “Philip has been working very hard for me, in stencilling a set of tables, etc., with brass letters.” Philip attended the classes of Professor Pillans-Latin ; Professor Forbes--Natural Philosophy; Professor Wilson-Moral Philosophy; and Dr. Reid's lectures on Chemistry. He seldom referred to Professor Wilson's lectures, which did not sustain a reputation won in other fields; but he and his brother enjoyed their visits to the hospitable house of this distinguished writer, who had been their father's fellowstudent. In Professor Pillans's class he was appointed inspector, which obliged him to give three or four hours a week to looking over exercises. He much enjoyed Professor Forbes's lectures, and as he and a few other students had studied the calculus, the professor had an extra class a week, to which he gave lectures upon it, and on the higher branches of astronomy, etc. These were

extremely interesting." Among his class





fellows were some from the Bristol College : they obtained the first “general competition prizes,” Philip ranking third. He felt the pleasant stimulus of belonging to a body of a thousand students : “You know I was always · Jowler, my dog, a social


The brothers attended the Unitarian chapel (St. Mark's), and the minister, Rev. B. J. Stannus, asked Philip, who was nothing loth, to take his youngest catechetical class; and soon afterwards he became the morning organist, delighting to play voluntaries from the works of the great masters.

On the close of the session, at the end of April, he returned to Bristol.

In September, 1837, Philip accompanied the writer to “Manchester College," York. This college, which, since 1853, has been established near University College, London, “is the successor and representative of a long series of academical institutions" which English Presbyterians maintained to provide university learning for their future ministers and others, who were excluded as Nonconformists from Oxford and Cambridge. It was founded at Manchester in 1786, soon after the dissolution of the celebrated Warrington Academy; and was removed to York in 1803, to be under the charge of the Rev. C. Wellbeloved. Mr. Wellbeloved was a man of profound learning, and a devoted student. His principal publication

a translation of the Pentateuch and the devotional and didactic books of Scripture, with notes. In 1823–24 he engaged in controversy with Archdeacon Wrangham, who had animadverted on Unitarianism, and many of his students were kindled with proselytizing zeal. But doctrinal discussions were not to his taste, and at this later period he rebuked one of his students who had been distributing Unitarian tracts in a neighbouring village, intimating that, while still at college, he was not qualified to form a decided opinion. Old age, and the Chancery suit then pending against the trustees of Lady Hewley (who had been a member of the congregation to which he ministered), had rendered him somewhat desponding. In earlier days he had taken a leading part in local institutions, and no one was held as a higher authority on the antiquities


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