Elements of Logic: Comprising the Doctrine of the Laws and Products of Thought, and the Doctrine of Method, Together with a Logical Praxis...

C. Scribner, 1867 - 237 páginas

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Página 69 - is the attribution of signs to our cognitions of things. But as a cognition must have been already there, before it could receive a sign; consequently, that knowledge which is denoted by the formation and application of a word, must have preceded the symbol which denotes it.
Página 70 - You have all heard," says Sir William Hamilton, " of the process of tunnelling through a sandbank. In this operation it is impossible to succeed unless every foot, nay, almost every inch of our progress be secured by an arch of masonry before we attempt the excavation of another. Now language is to the mind precisely what the arch is to the tunnel. The power of thinking and the power of excavation are not dependent on the words in the one case...
Página 227 - Thomas, &c., who once were living, but are now dead, we are entitled to conclude that all human beings are mortal, we might surely without any logical inconsequence have concluded at once from those instances, that the Duke of Wellington is mortal. The mortality of John, Thomas, and company is, after all, the whole evidence we have for the mortality of the Duke of Wellington. Not one iota is added to the proof by interpolating a general proposition.
Página 70 - ... the mason-work in the other ; but without these subsidiaries, neither process could be carried on beyond its rudimentary commencement. Though, therefore, we allow that every movement forward in language must be determined by an antecedent movement forward in thought ; still, unless thought be accompanied, at each point of its evolution, by a corresponding evolution of language, its further development is arrested.
Página 228 - What is the meaning of moon ? — the measurer. What is the meaning of sun ? — the begetter. What is the meaning of earth? — the ploughed.
Página 165 - We then recognize mountains, plains, houses, trees, animals, etc., that is, we discriminate these objects as wholes, as unities, from each other. But their parts, — the manifold of which these unities are the sum, — their parts still lose themselves in each other ; they are still but indistinctly visible. At length, when the daylight has fully sprung, we are enabled likewise to discriminate their parts ; we now see distinctly what lies around us. But still we see as yet only the wholes which...
Página 226 - John, \Thomas, &c., who once were living, but are now dead, we are entitled to conclude that all human beings are mortal, we might surely without any logical inconsequence have concluded at once from these instances, that the Duke of Wellington is mortal.
Página 227 - Not only may we reason from particulars to particulars without passing through generals, but we perpetually do so reason. All our earliest inferences are of this nature. From the first dawn of intelligence we draw inferences, but years elapse before we learn the use of general language. The child who, having burnt his fingers, avoids to thrust, them again into the fire, has reasoned or inferred, though he has never thought of the general maxim, Fire burns.
Página 82 - Determination ; — a very appropriate expression, inasmuch as by each character or attribute which we add on, we limit or determine more and more the abstract vagueness or extension of the notion ; until at last, if every attribute be annexed, the sum of attributes contained in the notion becomes convertible with the sum of attributes of which some concrete individual or reality is the complement. Now, when we determine any notion by adding on a subordinate concept, we divide it ; for the extension...
Página 69 - A sign is necessary, to give stability to our intellectual progress, — to establish each step in our advance as a new starting-point for our advance to another beyond. A country may be overrun by an armed host, but it is only conquered by the establishment of fortresses. Words are the fortresses of thought. They enable us to realize our dominion over what we have already overrun in thought; to Mental operations to make every intellectual conquest the basis of wc anguage a n- operations for others...

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