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(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) Article 37. Any noncommissioned officer or soldier who shall be convicted, at a regimental court martial, of having sold, or designedly, or through neglect, wasted the ammunition delivered out to him, to be employed in the service of the United States, shall be punished, at the discretion of such court.

Article 38. Every noncommissioned officer or soldier who shall be convicted, before a court martial, of having sold, lost, or spoiled, through neglect, his horse, arms, clothes, or accoutrements, shall undergo such weekly stoppages (not exceeding the half of his pay) as such court martial shall judge sufficient for repairing the loss or damage; and shall suffer confinement, or such other corporeal punishment as his crime shall deserve.

Article 39. Every officer who shall be convicted, before a court martial, of having embezzled or misapplied any money, with which he may have been intrusted for the payment of the men under his command, or for enlisting men into the service, or for other purposes, if a commissioned officer, shall be cashiered, and compelled to refund the money; if a noncommissioned officer, shall be reduced to the ranks, be put under stoppages until the money be made good, and suffer such corporeal punishment as such court martial shall direct.

Article 40. Every captain of a troop, or company, is charged with the arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, or other warlike stores, belonging to the troop or company under his command, which he is to be accountable for to his colonel, in case of their being lost, spoiled, or damaged, not by unavoidable accidents, or on actual service.

Article 41. All noncommissioned officers and soldiers who shall be found one mile from the camp without leave, in writing, from their commanding officer, shall suffer such punishment as shall be inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 42. No officer or soldier shall lie out of his quarters, garrison, or camp, without leave from his superior officer, upon penalty of being punished, according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 43. Every noncommissioned officer and soldier shall retire to his quarters or tent at the beating of the retreat; in de. fault of which he shall be punished according to the nature of his offence.

Article 44. No officer, noncommissioned officer, or soldier, shall fail in repairing, at the time fixed, to the place of parade, of exercise, or other rendezvous, appointed by his commanding officer, if not prevented by sickness, or some other evident necessity; or shall go from the said place of rendezvous, without leave from his commanding officer, before he shall be regularly dismissed or relieved, on the penalty of being punished, according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 45. Any commissioned officer who shall be found drunk on his guard, party, or other duty, shall be cashiered. Any non

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(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) commissioned officer or soldier so offending, shall suffer such corporeal punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 46. Any centinel who shall be found sleeping upon his post, or shall leave it before he shall be regularly relieved, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 47. No soldier belonging to any regiment, troop, or company, shall hire another to do his duty for him, or be excused from duty, but in cases of sickness, disability, or leave of absence; and every such soldier found guilty of hiring his duty, as also the party so hired to do another's duty, shall be punished, at the discretion of a regimental court martial.

Article 48. And every noncommissioned officer conniving at such hiring of duty aforesaid, shall be reduced; and every commissioned officer, knowing and allowing such ill practices in the service, shall be punished by the judgment of a general court martial.

Article 49. Any officer belonging to the service of the United States, who, by discharging of fire arms, drawing of swords, beating of drums, or by any other means whatsoever, shall occasion false alarms in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court martial.

Article 50. Any officer or soldier who shall, without urgent necessity, or without the leave of his superior officer, quit his guard, platoon, or division, shall be punished, according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 51. No officer or soldier shall do violence to any person who brings provisions or other necessaries to the camp, garrison, or quarters, of the forces of the United States, employed in any parts out of the said states, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as a court martial shall direct.

Article 52. Any officer or soldier, who shall misbehave himself before the enemy, run away, or shamefully abandon any fort, post, or guard, which he or they may be commanded to defend, or speak words inducing others to do the like; or shall cast away his arms and ammunition, or who shall quit his post or colors to plunder and pillage, every such offender, being duly convicted thereof, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court martial.

Article 53. Any person belonging to the armies of the United States, who shall make known the watch word to any person who is not entitled to receive it, according to the rules and discipline of war, or shall presume to give a parole or watch word, different from what he received, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court martial.

(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) Article 54. All officers and soldiers are to behave themselves orderly in quarters, and on their march; and whosoever shall commit any waste or spoil, either in walks of trees, parks, warrens, fish ponds, houses, or gardens, cornfields, enclosures of meadows, or shall maliciously destroy any property whatsoever, belonging to the inhabitants of the United States, unless by order of the then commander in chief of the armies of the said states, shall (besides such penalties as they are liable to by law) be punished, according to the nature and degree of the offence, by the judgment of a regimental or general court martial.

Article 55. Whosoever, belonging to the armies of the United States, employed in foreign parts, shall force a safe guard, shall suffer death.

Article 56. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with, or giving intelligence to, the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 58. All public stores taken in the enemy's camp, towns, forts, or magazines, whether of artillery, ammunition, clothing, forage, or provisions, shall be secured for the service of the United States; for the neglect of which the commanding officer is to be answerable.

Article 59. If any commander of any garrison, fortress, or post, shall be compelled, by the officers and soldiers under his command, to give up to the enemy, or to abandon it, the commissioned officers, noncommissioned officers or soldiers, who shall be convicted of having so offended, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court martial.

Article 60. All suttlers and retainers to the camp, and all persons whatsoever, serving with the armies of the United States in the field, though not enlisted soldiers, are to be subject to orders, according to the rules and discipline of war.

Article 61. Officers having brevets or commissions of a prior date to those of the regiment in which they serve, may take place in courts martial and on detachments, when composed of different corps, according to the ranks given them in their brevets, or dates of their former commissions; but in the regiment, troop, or company, to which such officers belong, they shall do duty and take rank, both in courts martial and on detachments, which shall be composed only of their own corps, according to the commissions by which they are mustered in the said corps.

Article 62. If, upon marches, guards, or in quarters, different corps of the army shall happen to join, or do duty together, the (ACT of April 10th, 1806.) officer highest in rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or militia, by commission there, on duty, or in quarters, shall command the whole, and give orders for what is needful to the service, unless otherwise specially directed by the president of the United States, according to the nature of the case.

Article 63. The functions of the engineers being generally confined to the most elevated branch of military science, they are not to assume, nor are they subject to be ordered on, any duty beyond the line of their immediate profession, except by the special order of the president of the United States; but they are to receive every mark of respect to which their rank in the army may entitle them, respectively, and are liable to be transferred, at the discretion of the president, from one corps to another, regard being paid to rank. Article 64. General courts martial may consist of any

number of commissioned officers, from five to thirteen, inclusively; but they shall not consist of less than thirteen, where that number can be convened, without manifest injury to the service.

Article 65. Any general officer commanding an army, or colonel commanding a separate department, may appoint general courts martial, whenever necessary. But no sentence of a court martial shall be carried into execution until after the whole proceedings shall have been laid before the officer ordering the same, or the officer commanding the troops for the time being; neither shall any sentence of a general court martial, in time of peace, extending to the loss of life, or the dismission of a commissioned officer, or which shall, either in time of peace or war, respect a general officer, be carried into execution, until after the whole proceedings shall have been transmitted to the secretary of war, to be laid before the president of the United States, for his confirmation or disapproval, and orders, in the case. All other sentences may be confirmed and executed by the officer ordering the court to assemble, or the commanding officer, for the time being, as the case may be.

Article 66. Every officer commanding a regiment or corps, may appoint, for his own regiment or corps, courts martial, to consist of three commissioned officers, for the trial and punishment of offences not capital, and decide upon their sentences. For the same purpose, all officers commanding any of the garrisons, forts, barracks, or other places, where the troops consist of different corps, may assemble courts martial, to consist of three commissioned officers, and decide

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their sentences. Article 67. No garrison or regimental court martial shall have the power to try capital cases, or commissioned officers; neither shall they inflict a fine exceeding one month's pay, nor imprison por put to hard labor, any noncommissioned officer or soldier, for a longer time than one month.

Article 68. Whenever it may be found convenient and neces.

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(ACT of April 10th, 1806.) sary to the public service, the officers of the marines shall be associated with the officers of the land forces, for the purpose of holding courts martial and trying offenders belonging to either; and in such cases the orders of the senior officer of either corps, who may be present and duly authorized, shall be received and obeved.

Article 69. The judge advocate, or some person deputed by him, or by the general or officer commanding the army, detachment, or garrison, shall prosecute in the name of the United States, but shall so far consider himself as counsel for the prisoner, after the said prisoner shall have made his plea, as to object to any leading question to any of the witnesses, or any question to the prisoner, the answer to which might tend to criminate himself; and administer, to each member of the court, before they proceed upon any trial, the following oath, which shall also be taken by all members of the regimental and garrison courts martial:

You, A. B., do swear that you will well and truly try and determine, according to evidence, the matter now before you, between the United States of America and the prisoner to be tried; and that you will duly administer justice, according to the provisions of An act establishing rules and articles for the government of the armies of the United States,' without partiality, favor, or affection: and if any doubt shall arise, not explained by said articles, according to your conscience, the best of your understanding, and the custom of war in like cases: and you do further swear, that you will not divulge the sentence of the court until it shall be published by the proper authority: neither will you disclose or discover the vote or opinion of any particular member of the court martial, unless required to give evidence thereof, as a witness, by a court of justice, in a due course of law. So help you God.

And as soon as the said oath shall have been administered to the respective members, the president of the court shall administer to the judge advocate, or person officiating as such, an oath in the following words:

You, A. B., do swear, that you will not disclose or discover the vote or opinion of any particular member of the court martial, unless required to give evidence thereof as a witness, by a court of justice, in due course of law; nor divulge the sentence of the court to any but the proper authority, until it shall be duly disclosed by the same.

So help you God.Article 70. When a prisoner arraigned before a general court martial shall, from obstinacy and deliberate design, stand mute, or answer foreign to the purpose, the court may proceed to trial and judgment as if the prisoner had regularly pleaded not guilty.

Article 71. When a member shall be challenged by a prisoner, he must state his cause of challenge, of which the court shall, after due deliberation, determine the relevancy or validity, and

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