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long will there be for Europe neither peace nor basely. Finding that the Peace Society is tranquillity, but a great boiling-up volcano, and averse from his views of wresting the freeEurope will be a great barrack and a great bloodfield I”
dom of Hungary from the grasp of the
northern tyrants, if necessary, he most dexThus does he sum up the fraternal obli- terously turned the flank of that Society, gations of the human brotherhoods, in a brought it round seemingly to his side, by strain of the noblest morality and states- showing that the best principles of Chrismanship:
tianity and peace were involved in the
effort to shield the weak and innocent from “I rely on England. I rely on it, in the name the bad and the strong. His suggestions of all who suffer oppression and long for freedom, concerning the diplomacy of England and like my own people and myself-for all are my brethren, whatever tongue they speak, whatever other nations, exhibit his profound and farcountry they call their own-members of the sighted views of European policy. Lord great family of mankind, the tie of blood is Palmerston, to whom he recommended the strengthened between us by common suffering. part of Anacharsis Clootz before the convention of went into Turkey, has apparently disapTo be sure, I have not the pretension to play the protection of his wife and children, when he France. Humble as I am, still I am no Anachar: pointed him, seeing that (as far as we are sis Clootz. But my sufferings, and the nameless aware) his lordship did not see the ex-Gowoes of my native land, as well as the generous vernor of Hungary. Palmerston, as the entreat you, gentlemen, to take the feeble words Foreign Minister of England, must feel himI raise to you, out of the bottom of my own deso. self open to the reproach of not having lation, for the cry of oppressed humanity, calling interfered for the protection of Hungary, out to you, by every stammering tongue, People Kossuth, seemingly distrustful therefore of of England, do not forget, in your happiness
, our the ministry of England, advises the people oppressed. Mind, in vour proud security, the I to pay close attention to the management of indignities we endure. Remember that with every their foreign affairs, and suggests that the down-beaten nation, ong rampart of liberty falls. business of the foreign office should be open Remember the tickleness of human fate. Remem to the knowledge of the press and parliaber that those wounds out of which one nation bleeds, are so many womds inflicted on that princi- ment, and advises the reformers and all ple of liberty which makes your glory and happi- friends of freedom to try and bring this
Remember there is a common tie which about. He says the diplomacy of tyrants binds the destinies of humanity. Be thanked for is more to be dreaded than their open war. the tear of compassion you give to our mournful His powerful and direct mind deals with past; but have something more than a tear; hare, national principles in that simple manner in our future, a brother's hand to extend to us!"
which belongs to true greatness, and thus The reader is, doubtless, reminded here brings the philosophy of government to the of the appeal of Adherbal before the Senate level of all plain and honest understandings. of Rome, against the tyranny of Jugurtha. The fine-drawn and complex diplomacy of But all the eloquence of Sallust cannot the Talleyrands, Metternichs, Palmerstons, invest the character and cause of the African and all the arcana of politics, he disdains Prince with any thing of the greatness which and puts aside with infinite bo!dness and belongs to those of the heroic Magyar; while scorn. an enlightened audience of Englislumen-or As regards the mission of Kossuth to this rather the audience of all England-may be country, it seems to be the conviction of the pretty fairly taken to equal in dignity the public that our government will and ought Conscript Fathers of the Capitol.
to give him, in future, a little more aid in In all his speeches, Kossuth has proved the diplomatic way than heretofore; that that his state: manship is as large and wise our ambassadors at foreign courts will speak as his eloquence is of the finest and most more decidedly the wishes of a great nation powerful order. Never was oratory more of freemen, in behalf of the oppressed Euroaptly and happily suited to the objects of the pean family. America seems to have a orator. While, on the one hand, he spoke destiny before her, from which the stern to excite the noblest and most generous necessity of human progress will not allow emotions of our nature, he was careful to her to swerve. Providence bas not placed conciliate the good-will, and even the preju- her—the only free nation on earth—on dices, of his English hearers. But never the highest level of all this world, that
she may trade and grow fat merely, leav- this generous and enduring sympathy. All ing the suffering millions of less fortunate this seems to declare a truth as important countries to look up to her imploringly, to the world as that of Copernicus, and to with all the anguish of desire, and beseech point to the deep and general tendency of her sisterly help, in vain. A nation of the age, under the controlling hand of God. twenty-five millions, with the power and That tendency is towards freedom, as Kosresources of fifty millions, need never pro- suth truly said; and it is fortunate and of ceed to very violent extremities, in a case good omen for mankind, that England and like this. The expression of her will would America are about to show themselves in be enough to influence those to whom she the van of it; that the Anglo-Saxon family should address it. Her word would be more (we use the term as we use “Magyar" for effective than another nation's blow. The Hungarian) is steadily pressing on to its old timid may feel consoled in the conviction place, on the safe and solid path way to betthat a firm tone on the part of our govern- ter destinies. Fortunate, we say, for the ment would be very likely to effect all that world, which has been so harassed by the Kossuth comes to our thresholds to implore wild attempts of unqualified nations to renon behalf of Hungary. He desires to unite ovate the conditions of humanity. France England and America in the determination has tried to go first; but she has proved to warn the Czar against interfering murder- herself a bad pioneer, an unsafe guide. At ously in Europe any more. If the exile can one moment, full of a sweeping philanthrodo this, Hungary will have one more chance. py, approaching to insanity; and the next, And certainly, neither England nor America Alushing into foolish enthusiasms at the feet can, in any case, lie under the dread reproach of insolent homicides, she may be wondered of allowing the high-handed injustice of at or pitied, but cannot any longer be folRussia to be renewed.
lowed. If the conduct of the European rulers be A breath of wind can send an avalanche calculated to depress the hearts of the good, on its march. The breath of this foreigner there is also much to rejoice them in the promises to give the kindred English-speakvirtuous and fraternal demonstrations of the ing peoples the impulse which shall direct English and American people. Such de- them on a great course to some mighty ismonstrations are more glorious to a nation sue. We should welcome the influence of than all the long emblazoned roll of its vic- Kossuth for the sake of liberty and civilizatories in battle. When the famous Marshal tion. But we niust beware of fanaticism, Haynau went to London, the other day, and leave the grave question of peace or after his triumphs, the amiable populace rose war to that calm legislative deliberation in upon him with a ferocious disgust that made which our wise Constitution has placed all Europe either cheer loudly or ponder them. It will be remarked that Kossuth is not deeply. When the dungeon worn exile lands in favor of any of those impatient theories on their shores, this same people--the stur- which have turned the brains of the French dy and historical commonalty of England, topsy-turvey, and sent them deplorably rush to receive him as if he was a dear bro- astray. When Kossuth says he would mould ther—though his name comes rather diffi- the government of Hungary after the model cult to their Anglo-Saxon tongues—and of our own, he may well be relied on, seeing give him all the tumultuous honors generally that the polity of that country has always paid to royalty! That country sits firmly borne a strong resemblance to that of Engon its basis, where the populace can thus land; and the transition to ours would be rebuke the wickedness of men in high places, the easiest, apparently, and most natural in and do homage to the worth of heroic pa- the world. The freedom of Hungary would, triotism in distress. And it is a thing to therefore, create in the midst of Europe an make one pause, with a feeling of awe and influence kindred with the American, which a looking-for of important change, to per- would have the most important results in ceive how the people of our own potent re- the history of progress-results which we public are stirred by the coming of this poor can only faintly foreshadow, since they would exile among them. From the senator sit- make an Anglo-Celto-Saxon predominance ting in the Capitol, down to the hodman in in the heart of the European family. the street, " is linked the electric chain" of| America must inevitably interfere in the
business of foreign powers ; so mighty a dividends; but so to control the growing member of the human brotherhood cannot intelligence of Europe by the manly benetilive sequestered; but it must be no meddling cence of her policy, as well as by the specinterference. To maintain the influence tacle of her greatness, that the nations which has done so much for the progress may be led to imitate what they must love of the world, she must not depart from her and respect, and adopt the well-working well-settled principles or policy. Certainly, institutions of our republic, instead of rushthe true part and glory of America will be, ing wildly after vain theories of the closet. not alone to cover this continent with a pros In this point of view, the duty of America perous network of railways, all paying noble I would seem to be a high and grave one.
OUR GENERAL REVIEW.
AN ABSTRACT AND BRIEF CHRONICLE OF THE TIME.
FRANCE-As Louis Napoleon's term of office draws this law was passed by the Assembly, and signed to a close, public expectation grows daily more in. by the President, it was aimed at the Socialists tense, while the movements of the contending pow. and Red Republicans; it was, in fact, a coalition ers, the Assembly and the Executive, are watched of all the other interests and parties in the country with the most painful anxiety. In the Assembly, against those two dangerous classes. For Red an attempt was lately made to obtain for the pro- Republicanism is the vagabondism of society; the tection of that body the establishment of a distinct | Arab element, with its hand against every man; military force, under the especial direction of the with nothing to gain from order, and all to hope legislature, and independent of the general super from anarchy. But in France, where labor always vision of the President, as officially tête d'armée of presses on the means of subsistence, there is also the French Republic. For it was guardians the an immense floating population, that ebbs and deliberative body needed, and not jailers. This flows with the rise and fåll of demand, from town rather anomalous measure was, however, defeated, to country, from the seaboard to the interior. As, leaving the President more firmly seated than be for instance, in the vine-growing districts at the fore. Indeed, had it been successful, the conse- vintage season, there is an excessive demand for quences to the cause of constitutional reform would labor, which ceases entirely with the harvest-home have been more disastrous than the reëlection of of the grape. The disbanded armies of working the present incumbent; its inevitable consequences men, thereupon, pour into the adjoining cities and being either a coup d'état on the part of Preis- rural districts, filling up the channels of employdent Bonaparte, or the military rule of a favor- ment, which have adjusted themselves to these ite parliamentary general,—a lord Protector,-or periodical drains. The number of those that lose a terrible civil war; not a mere emeute crowded their votes by change of residence, from this and into the space of three days, and confined in its other causes, is 3,000,000, out of the whole nummilitary operations to the bombarding of a part of ber of 10,000,000 voters. By this class, with whom Paris, and the assault and defense of barricades, the name Napoleon is still a tower of strength, but an organized contention of political elements, was the President of the French Republic helped into which the whole kingdom would have been into office. But Louis Napoleon, kicking down drawn, and every province, and village, and house- the ladder by which he rose, has since thrown hold divided against itself. In that day, France himself into the arms of the reactionists, and is may well pray for the advent of the Cossack. For now, in sad truth, the leader of the great principle she has dealt already too much in blood. Her ex of despotic authority in the west of Europe, as the cesses and national instability have done more Czar Nicholas is in the east. In his recent megharm to the cause of free institutions than a thou- sage, the French President speaks of a “vast desand years of despotism. The friends of freedom magogical conspiracy, now organizing in Europe, look at her with distrust, almost with aversion. which he will use all the means in his power to France must work out her political salvation with crush.” This demagogical conspiracy, be it known, other means than the bayonet, and in other scenes is the cause in which such men as Kossuth and than the lamentable array of battling senates and Mazzini are now laboring. The sublime audacity first consuls.
of this tergiversation has met with only partial In his message, the French President proposes success, for in the very market in which Louis the revocation of the law restricting the electoral Napoleon offers himself for sale, he is checked by qualification to those who have dwelt for three the competition of the Legitimatists and Orleanists. consecutive years in any one commune. When He now plays the game not unknown on this side
of the Atlantic, of a popular candidate with a set | Thus beginneth the reign of the Emperor Naof principles for every party and section; com- poleon II. mending bimself to the reactionist by putting his Austria.— A conspiracy has been discovered foot on the infant liberty of Rome, and by driving and frustrated in the Austrian army, chiefly among from the coasts of France the wandering Hungarian those officers and privates that were forced into chief, while to the earnest republican he speaks the Austrian service out of the disbanded revoluof universal suffrage, and a constitution revised. tionary troops of Hungary. At the close of the A muzzled press, with a restricted circulation, ren war, numbers of the Hungarian officers were reders a maneuvre comparatively easy, which is duced to the ranks, and, together with the private often successful, even in the United States, in the soldiers, over whom they naturally retained their midst of the full glare of party and political in- habits of authority, were scattered in large detelligence. It is said that, in casting their votes tachments among the forces of their hereditary for Louis Napoleon, thousands of the benighted tyrants. This rashi experiment showed how little French peasantry fancied they were voting for the Cabinet of Vienna understood the Hungarian the Emperor Napoleon!! Be this as it may, the temper, and what absolute ignorance of the free notorious political profligacy of their prominent nature of man befogs the comprehensions of those public men shows a terrible lack in the means of who, from birth or position, fancy the servility of obtaining correct general information among those caste and court to be the natural growth of the whose votes hold them up in public station. For human heart. The Hungarian ranks were filled in politics, as in trade, the necessity of the case neither by raking together the dregs of the popu. will, doubtless, create a certain factitious standard lation, nor yet by conscription—the two ordinary of honesty, however low the tone of a people's sources of replenishment for standing armies morals may be in other respects, providing always neither from the nation's misery nor from its vice, that the masses are not kept in barbarous igno- whereby kings justify the black proverb, “ the rance by obstacles placed by Government in the worse the man, the better the soldier.” But in the way of a free circulation of political intelligence. rank and file of Hungary flowed the undefiled
By this seeming move of the President in the blood of Asian plains-strong, bold hearts, that direction of republicanism, his prospects for re- are patient under oppression, but not degraded by election are materially brightening, and his parti- it. And at this very moment, even in these dark sans have already met with a triumph in the days, they are waiting cheerily for the “hour and Assembly. After long discussion, a clause has been the man.” Well, it was Germany taught old adopted, making the time of residence necessary Oxenstiern the lesson, quam parva sapientia regilur to qualify a citizen to yote in the commercial or mundus; and now very shortly will many a sadtownship elections only two years, instead of faced upholder of the divine right of kings con three, as it still is in the general electoral law. the same task through his tears, writ in blood. This is certainly a departure from the rigor of Of all the autocrats that ride down the liberties that law, and a step towards universal suffrage. of Europe, the young Francis-Joseph of Austria
sits the least securely in l.is seat. In the midst Postscript.— The long-dreaded collision has at of the half million bayonets that are the only sup: last taken place. The opposition had finally port of his throne, he finds disaffection; his broad decided to demand the arrest and impeachment empire is an ill-cemented conglomerate of discordof the President, and their leaders were gathered, ant nationalities; and the finances of bis kingdom and in the very act of confirming their decision, are hopelessly overloaded with debt; for at this when they were themselves arrested, and conveyed very moment the secret revolutionary loans of to Vinceúnes. Thiers, Changarnier, and Lamori- Mazzini and Kossuth find more success in the encière, were among those seized. The Assembly thusiasm of the masses, than does the proposed was dissolved, and Paris declared in a state of Austrian loan with the European capitalists. siege. The temporary building in which the Assembly had held its meetings was pulled down, and whenever any of the members attempted to AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. meet officially, they were ordered to disperse, and arrested if they refused. The preparations of the As the American steamer Prometheus was leavPresident for this dashing affair were carried on ing the port of San Juan de Nicaragua, on the with the greatest skill and secresy. On the same morning of the 21st November, she was fired upon morning, proclamations were posted throughout by the British brig-of-war Express. The cause of the city, and dispatched to the provinces, restoring this occurrence was the refusal of the Prometheus, universal suffrage, and declaring that the President for several successive trips, to pay the usual harbor only held the power thus forcibly attained until duties. San Juan is a free port. All articles exthe will of the people could be known. The elec- ported or imported are free of duty, with the exception was to come off during the present month fortion of the ordinary harbor duties, which are ima presidential term of ten years, Louis Napoleon posed by a city council, consisting of the English promising faithfully to bow to the will of the peo- Consul as chairman, two Americans, one Scotchple, even if adverse to himself. This stroke, al- man, one native of the coast, and one Frenchman. though long expected, seems at last to have taken on the refusal of the owner of the steamer (who all by surprise. No preparations were made for was on board at the time) to pay these charges, the resistance, and but a few barricades were erected, commander of the Express was applied to for aswhich were soon carried by the troops. Order is, sistance. The brig immediately got under weigh, for the time at least, completely restored in Paris. / and, as the Prometheus was dropping down towards VOL. IX. NO. I. NEW SERIES.
the mouth of the harbor, compelled her to return the proceedings by wbich a foreigner born becomes to her anchorage, by firing first a blank cartridge a citizen of this country, and renounces allegiance and then a shot across her bow, and another astern. to any foreign Government. It may be doubtful The American vessel thereupon paid, under pro- also whether, if he were to be regarded in all retest, the demand of the authorities, and was per: spects as an American citizen, the provisions of the mitted to put to sea. A letter has since appeared treaty have been violated in his case. in one of our daily papers, from certain American Mr. Webster thinks that probably the most usemerchants dwelling at San Juan, stating that ful course for our Government to pursue in his case these are the customary port charges that all ves- is to make the same application for Mr. Thrasher sels are expected to pay, with the exception of the which has been made for the persons connected British mail-steamers, which are exempt because with the expedition of Lopez, and instructions are they bring and receive a mail to and from San in consequence given accordingly. Juan; and further, that the steamers of any other In Northern Mexico, Carvajal and his co-revolucountry are offered the same exemption on the tionists have been repulsed from Matamoras, to same conditions,
which they had laid siege, and are now fast disHowever much the avarice of the owners of the banding. Carvajal has retreated along the Rio Prometheus may have placed them in the wrong Grande with a few Mexicans, and is using every in this matter, the firing upon the steamer is å effort to draw out to his standard the malcontents question of entirely a diferent sort. According to in that section. The Texans, however, who bad the express terms of the Bulwer and Clayton treaty, joined him, and were his main reliance, had nearly Great Britain is to hold no protectorate or armed all deserted him, and at the last accounts, were occupation of any kind upon the coasts of Central crossing the river on their way homewards. America. Neither is the fact of any avail, that the Difficulties have occurred in Utah between the assistance of the British commander was requested Mormons and the United States' officers. Part of by a town council composed partly of Americans, the money appropriated by Congress for public since the council had no right to act at all, except buildings has been taken by the Mormons to pay as officially citizens of Nicaragua.
off the debts of the Church, and an attempt was Directions have been given by our Government made to get possession of the remainder. The Secreto Commodore Parker, of the home squadron, to tary, in whose hands it still remained, persisted proceed in the frigate Saranac to San Juan de Nicar- in retaining it, and, in company with the Judges agua, for the protection of American commerce on of the United States Courts, was compelled to that coast, and to notify the commander of the leave the valley. British naval forces there to that effect. At the In the correspondence between the Secretary of same time he is instructed to assure the local State and the Spanish Minister, Don Calderon authorities of the port that the United States will says that “apprized of all the facts, her Majesty's not justify the non-payment of any lawful port Government has ordered the undersigned to perduties on the part of their merchant-vessels, and sist in asking, as he again asks, in the name of that they desire the most friendly relations with said Government, for full satisfaction for the ag. the Government of Central Ainerica, and will faith-gravated insults committed upon the Spanish flag, fully maintain on their part the stipulations of the and upon her Majesty's Consul in New Orleans; above-mentioned treaty.
and also, that the Spaniards residing in that city Instructions have also been sent to our Minister shall be indemnified for the losses they have susin London, which the Government, in the present taided at the hands of an infuriated and licentious state of the case, do not deem it proper to make mob." public.
Mr. Webster, in reply, admits the justice of the In a dispatch from the Department of State to demand for reparation to the Consul, and promises our representative at Madrid, relating to the im that he, or his successor, shall be received with prisonment of John S. Thrasher by the Spanish bonors, but refers the Spanish residents to the authorities, Mr. Webster states that it is to be re- laws for indemnification. gretted tha: no communication whatever has been The arrival of Kossuth has for the last few maile by Mr. Thrasher to the Department respect. weeks driven almost every other topic of merely ing the circumstances of his case, so as to evable local interest out of the public mind." His landing the Government to see what are the precise grounds at Staten Island, his triumphal entry into New. of his complaint. It is stated by the Spanish York, the banquets tendered bim by the municipal authorities that Mr. Trasher had long been a resi- authorities, the press, and the bar, the deputations dent in Havana; bad become domiciled there, and from all classes and from all sections of the counhad taken the oath of allegiance to the Spanish try, constitute one of the most extraordinary specCrown, and therefore, as they suppose, was an- tacles the new world has ever yet beheld. His swerable to the ordinary tribunals of the country remarkable powers of oratory, his delicate tact, for any criminal act committed by him. His his mastery of the English tongue, the wisdom and friends, on the other hand, insist that on his trial the earnest purpose of the man, which impress all he was deprived of certain privileges secured to that behold him, show that Louis Kossuth is the citizens of the United States by our treaty with great man brought forth by this era of revolution. Spain. But it may be doubtful, says Mr. Webster, And it is not merely the more inflammable porwhether, after having sworn allegiance to the tions of the community that feel the strange fasciSpanish Government, he can longer claim the nation exerted by the Hungarian chief; not alone privileges and immunities of an American citizen, hose that harness themselves to the cars of operaas the oath of allegiance is the consummation of ancers, and pay court at the levees of public