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to believe he was going into winter-quar- the subsequent disastrous defeat of Genters. It was indispensable to occupy the eral Winchester at the river Raisin, on the rapids, the subsequent site of Fort Meigs, 221 January, 1813. with a force sufficiently strong to protect

What he suffered on this tramp may be the provisions, stores, and munitions of war, imagined, but cannot well bo described. He which were to be forwarded from the other had been accustomed only to wear his sword, wings of the army, located at Fort McAr- after sending his horse to the interior, and thur and Upper Sandusky, previous to a their daily marching had ceased for some contemplated rapid movement upon Malden two months. He was on this occasion and Detroit. From the 22d to the 30th of loaded with a heavy musket and accoutreDecember, active preparations were being ments, in addition to a blanket and four made for this change of position, which was days' provisions on his back. The snow to bring the American forces so much near- commenced falling on the morning of the er to the enemy. The river being frozen 31st December, and continued without inover, they were obliged to take the baggage termission two days and nights, so that on on their backs, or on rickety sleds, to be the third day of their journey, young Combs hauled by the men, for all their horses which and his companion found it over two feet had not been sent into the interior in Octo- deep. They were in a dense forest, without ber or November, had starved to death. path or compass, and only guided by the

unerring skill of his companion, who had “ Having provided for the sick, and assigned been some fifteen years, in early life, a capguards to attend and protect them, the march for tive among the Indians in this region, and the rapids was commenced on the 30th December. At the same time, Mr. Leslie Combs, a

was well skilled in all their ways and cusyoung min of intelligence and enterprise from toms. Several nights they encainped in the Kentucky, who had joined the army as a volun black swamp, and could not find a place to teer on its march from Fort Wayne to Fort Defi- lie down and rest, even on the snow, but ance, accompanied by Mr. A. Riddle, as a guide, was sent with dispatches to inform the command

were compelled to sit up all night with er-in-chief, (General Harrison,) of this movement, a small fire at their feet, made of such in order that provisions and reënforcements might old brush as they could collect, and, wrapbe forwarded as soon as possible. General Win. Iping themselves in their blankets, shivered chester expected to be met by these at the rapids through the long hours till daylight enabled vented by an immense fall of snow, which, as Mr. them again to resume their tiresome march. Comb: had to traverse on foot a pathless wilder. On the sixth day, their four days' provision ness of more than one hundred miles in extent, re was entirely exhausted, and they had early tarded him for four or five days longer in reaching put themselves on short allowance. Young even the first point of destination, (Fort Mc Arthur,) Combs was extremely ill nearly all night, than would otherwise have been necessary to perform the whole route.”—McAfee, p. 201.

so much so, that it was concluded that

Riddlə must leave him in the morning to These dispatches consisted of a brief note, his fate, and for himself make the best of introducing young Combs to General Har- his way to the nearest settlement or fort, rison, “ as a youth whose information as to and endeavor to save Combs, if he should the intended movements of General Win- survive till his return. Fortunately for our chester could be entirely relied upon;" and young volunteer, his natural strength of conat the same time he was fully possessed by stitution, and, it may be added, his unflinchGeneral Winchester, confidentially, of all his ing resolution never to stop while he could intentions, which it was deemed unsafe to walk, overcame his disease, and he kept intrust to paper, inasmuch as his journey moving for three days and nights longer, was to be through a region full of savages, without a mouthful of food for either himwho might take his scalp and capture his self or his companion, except slippery elm papers. These confidential communications, bark. On the ninth evening, after dark, intrusted to him alone, and by him duly they reached Fort McArthur, then under made to General Harrison, enabled him, in command of General Tupper. 1840, to vindicate the old hero of Tippeca Every attention was paid to young Combs noe with entire success, before the Ameri- by General Tupper and his staff

, on his arcan people, against the foul aspersion cast rival at the head-quarters of that general. upon him by his enemies in reference to But his sufferings had been so great, that he

was prostrated for days afterwards on a bed separated for some time. The night of the of sickness ; as, in addition to hunger and 21st was bright, clear, and beautiful, but infatigue, his feet were badly frost-bitten, and tensely cold, with a full moon shining; and his arm joints stiffened with rheumatic at two o'clock his newly found companion pains, from which he has never since recov- and himself determined to make an effort to ered. Being unable to proceed to Upper reach the river Raisin before the next night. Sandusky, where General Harrison was So anxious were they to accomplish this posted, his dispatches were conveyed to him, purpose, that they forgot for the time their with a brief letter from himself, by a special being on hostile ground, as recognized by messenger on horseback, the day after his Hull in his articles of capitulation, and that arrival at Fort McArthur.

there were one or two villages intervening As soon as it was considered safe for him between them and their point of destination. to leave his quarters, he was furnished with Whether they should encounter in them a sled, two horses, and a driver, and pro- friends or foes, and how many murdering ceeded as speedily as possible through the Pottowatamies might be prowling through snow to the rapids, distant about ninety or the forests, were not taken into account; one hundred miles by way of Hull's trace, onward they resolved to go, and at all wbich place he reached on the evening of hazards. the 19th of January, expecting to find Gen- After twelve or thirteen hours' laborious eral Winchester's army encamped there, as trudging through the suow and ice, one that general had told him be would be. leading and the other driving their little Instead of this, he met the news of Colonel half-starved pony, they arrived at a small Lewis's glorious victory of the 18th, at river village about ten miles from the river Raisin, over the British and Indians, thirty- Raisin, to witness a scene of consternation six miles in advance of the rapids, and about and distress never before presented to their twenty miles only from Malden, the head-view. An American soldier, without hat, quarters of the British army in Upper Can- coat, or shoes, had just arrived from the disada. Disappointed and mortified that a astrous field of Raisin, with an exaggerated battle had been fought in his absence, and account of that bloody affair, and the whole apprehending the speedy recurrence of an- population were preparing to fly towards other similar event of a more conclusive the American army, supposed to be apcharacter, as General Winchester had him- proaching under General Harrison, by way self gone on with the flower of his forces that of the ice on the lake and river. While morning, to reënforce Colonel Lewis ; with- hesitating whether to believe this most painout waiting for General Harrison, who was ful news, and return, or treat it as the tale expected in a day or two, with a portion of of a coward, and proceed to the scene of the right wing of the army, he determined action, they discovered another fugitive in to lose no time in reporting himself at the distant prairie approaching them, who, head-quarters. Accordingly, on the 20th, on his arrival, confirmed all they had just in the evening, he set off on foot, with his heard, with the additional fact, that the Inblanket and one day's rations on his back, dians were pursuing the flying troops under and without his old heavy musket, to over- Winchester and Lewis, in the direction totake Major Cotgreve's battalion, which was wards their present location. In a very short understood to have been hurried forward by space of time, with the exception of a few General Harrison from Lower Sandusky, Canadian Frenchmen and one family of with two or three pieces of light artillery, in whom we shall presently speak more particthe direction of the river Raisin. He soon ularly, the whole village was depopulated, accomplished his object, as the Maumee was leaving houses and furniture, barns, grain, frozen over from shore to shore, and he stock, every thing but the little bedding, could travel on the ice with much greater food, and clothing they could pack on their rapidity than by land through the deep sleds and carryalls, and scudding for life on crusted snow.

the ice towards the rapids. It was a scene With them he found another young never to be forgotten by our young soldier. Kentuckian, with a small pony, loaded with It was the first time he had ever seen war, his baggage and provisions, proceeding to face to face, or rather the effects of war. He join his regiment, from which he had been I had read and thought and dreamed of bat

tles and their awful desolations; but this | an ox-sled loaded with cooking utensils, food miniature likeness was his first personal and bedding. The latter vehicle could not view, and it sickened and saddened his proceed, as all the rest had done, on the ice, heart. We will not stop to moralize but; because the oxen were unshod, and the proceed with our facts.*

owner did not know that Hull's old road The Frenchmen above mentioned, young by land back to the Maumee was suffiCombs understood, were Indian traders; and ciently free from obstruction to enable him from their knowledge of several Indian lan- to save his family by that route. Fortuguages and general friendly intercourse with nately, Combs and his companion had just them, they had remained, with the hope of traveled that way, and could assure him of being able to save their friends' property its entire practicability, and that, moreover, from the torches of the enraged enemy. troops were advancing by it at that very The family before spoken of consisted of time, with whom they had encamped the husband, wife, and five children, the largest previous night. Having done thus much, about twelve years old. They were distrib- the dictates of ordinary prudence—the law uted between a small one-horse sleigh and of self-preservation, deemed by some the first

law of nature-might have impelled our * “MASSACRE OF Raisin. Proctor (Colonel]

young officer and his companion to disenthen agreed to receive a surrender on the follows cumber their pony of his pack, and with his ing terms: that all private property should be re. aid have saved themselves from the muchspected; that sleds should be sent next morning apprehended tomahawk and scalping-knife to remove the sick and wounded to Amherstburg, of the Indians, reeking and red as they were on the island opposite Malden; that in the mean with the blood of their gallant associates and time they should be protected by a guard ; and that the side-arms of the officers should be restored friends at Raisin. to them at Malden. [Query, why were their But in the boys' hearts of our youthful side-arms taken from them at all, if treachery was adventurers there was a higher law," a not contemplated ?] . About 12 o'clock, the prisoners were marched off. Drs. Todd and

duty which they thought they owed to the Bowers, of the Kentucky volunteers, were left with army in their rear, and the helpless family in the wounded; and Major Reynolds, [an American their presence, which induced them to give officer and prisoner also,) with two or three inter- up the pony to the two soldiers, together preters, was all the guard left to protect them. . About sunrise, instead of sleds arriving to convey

with blankets to protect themselves; directthem to Malden, a large body of Indians, perhaps ing them to ride alternately, and hasten back two hundred in number, came into the town, paint. to General Harrison with the sad tidings ed black and red. : : : They began first to plun- they had just communicated to them, and der the houses of the inhabitants, and then broke which was to blast all his cherished hopes into those where the wounded prisoners were of a successful invasion of Upper Canada lying, some of whom they abused and stripped of their clothes and blankets, and then tomahawked

that winter. them without mercy.

The few who were At the same time, throwing their packs judged able to march, were saved and taken off upon the ox-sled, our adventurers started towards Malden; but as often as any of them gave the terrified family in the same direction, out on the way, they were tomahawked and left lying in the road. For the massacre at the remaining themselves some distance in the river Raisin, for which any other civilized Govern- rear, to give notice of approaching danger, ment would have dismissed, and perhaps have and as far as possible save these families, if gibbeted the commander, Colonel Proctor received it should come on themselves. the rank of Major-General in the British army. Proctor, after he had left the battle-ground, never

Young Hensley, his Kentucky compannamed the guards nor sleds which he had promised jon, had a musket; Tessier, their protégé, for the wounded Americans ; nor would he pay had a fusee or shot-gun, and Combs himself any attention to the subject, when repeatedly re was armed with a sword and belt-pistols. minded of it by General Winchester and Major Their march was of course very slow; but it Madison, (prisoners.) Captain Elliot [of the British army) once replied to their solicitations, that the seemed to our ardent young officer that he Indians were very excellent surgeons ! ...

The had never before seen oxen move with such prospect of their release, however, was now very a tardy pace. They knew not at what mogloomy, as Proctor had issued an order, forbidding ment their ears would be saluted with the individuals to purchase any more of them, [the prisoners, ] while a stipulated price was still paid for savage war-whoop in their rear. Thus they all the scalps brought in by the savages !"--See proceeded till the road was lost in darkness, McAfee, pp. 216–24.

hoping to meet Major Cotgreve's battalion,

and were forced to encamp by the road-side. across the river on the ice, after sundown on They watched all night, one of them about the 23d, and arrived on the opposite side of a hundred paces from the fire, on the trace Portage river on the evening of the 24th, towards Raisin, and at dawn they again re- with his small caravan, much to the surprise sumed their slow retreat. They had not and joy of his friends, who had already gone over two or three miles, when, instead numbered him among the dead. Having of meeting an armed band which would give been mainly instrumental in saving three of them comparative safety, they found Cot that gallant band of Kentuckians, who had greve's baggage-sleds and artillery aban- marched to the frontier some five months doned in the road, with all the marks of before, with such devoted patriotism and sudden and precipitate flight.“ I shall not buoyant hopes of military glory, for the first pretend,” Combs subsequently writes, “ to time since he met the news of the disaster, describe our feelings at this unexpected sight; he now felt safe from pursuit, and gratified but thank Heaven we did not abandon our more than words could express that he had voluntarily assumed charge, but resolved, had the nerve to do his duty. come what would, to save them or perish The weather had moderated, and the rain with them."

had been falling all day, so that the ice on Just before sunset, they came in sight of the the river had split near the centre and bulged Maumee river, and at the same time discov- upwards, rendering it difficult as well as ered that Winchester's camp, left in charge dangerous to cross. But nothing could stop of General Payne, some three or four miles our young adventurer's friends, when he up the river, was in flames. At first they came in sight, from rushing across to meet supposed that the British and Indians had him. Majors Hardin and Gano conducted gotten ahead of them by way of the lake him to head-quarters, and introduced him and river ice, and had defeated the remnant to General Harrison, informing him what of the left wing of the army and General he had done. “It was a proud moment for Harrison's reënforcements, and that their own me," writes Mr. Combs, in reference to that destiny was sealed. They were soon relieved, sight, “ thus to be presented : and while he however, from this painful apprehension, by complimented me, and said I was worthy of discovering a wounded soldier who had a civic crown, his eyes were moist with tears, made his escape by that route, and assured and mine were not dry. That tear-drop of them that no enemy had passed him. the hero of Tippecanoe fell upon my heart;

We shall only refer to so much of the mili- and my untiring support of him in 1840, tary operations about this period on that fron- when he was a candidate for the Presidency, tier as may render the personal narrative of cannot be wondered at, although my first the subject of the memoir intelligible. The choice then and ever had been Henry two flying soldiers to whom Hensley bad Clay." promptly abandoned his pony at Combs' “I had no time,” he continues, “on my persuggestion, and determined to aid the latter ilous retreat, to seek for my murdered friends in bringing off the distressed family, had, it and fellow-soldiers at Raisin. seems, communicated to Major Cotgreve the were dry, and my nerves seemed rigid as same alarming information they had given iron until all personal danger was over, and to Combs, “ that at least five thousand In- all under my charge in safety.” Of over nine dian warriors were in hot pursuit, under hundred officers and soldiers engaged in the Tecumseh and Dixon," and thus caused his disastrous battle, only thirty-three escaped; precipitate retreat. They reached General all the rest were killed on the field, massaWinchester's old camp at the rapids, at cred, or led into captivity. The news filled which General Harrison, in the mean time, the whole country with the deepest grief; had arrived with a small body-guard early Kentucky was clad in mourning, and Geueral on the 22d, having traveled all night, and Harrison himself overwhelmed with sorrow caused him to abandon the position north and disappointment. Very soon afterwards, of the Maumee, set fire to the camp, and the remnant of the Kentucky regiment enfall back to the south side of Portage river, gaged in the conflict were discharged; but some fifteen or twenty miles nearer the Ohio the subject of this memoir declined to leave settlements on Hull's trace.

for some time, not knowing that the invaYoung Combs followed in his footsteps i sion of Upper Canada was abandoned for

My eyes the winter, till after Fort Meigs was erected, much worn and badly soiled, his mother and General Harrison himself

, in a compli- met him with a tear and a smile, remarking, mentary note, advised him of the fact, and in jest, that she was surprised to see him so permitted him to return to Kentucky, with soon, as he had told her he would not return the expectation of again joining him in the until they had taken Canada. His reply spring with other volunteers. Thus ended was, “ that he had only come home to get a his first campaign.

clean shirt.” And she very soon found he When he arrived at home, with his clothes, was in earnest.



What is the relation which man sustains Oriental life, throughout its entire developto the universe, is the great world-problem ment in religion, and art, and literature, and whose solution speculative thought has law, was but the flowering and fruitage of sought through so many ages of restless that impassive and noxious faith, which and persistent inquiry. Upon this thread teaches the indifferency of circumstances, the Philosophy has strung most of its brilliant slumberous immobility of life, and the abanand bewildering speculations. To discover donment of self. The Sphinx, with its look some pass-way from the personal to the im- of sad and mute bewilderment, is the expersonal, soine transit from the individual pressive symbol of its thought. to the universal, Intellect has sounded its Philosophy next appears upon the more profoundest depths, and Genius wandered congenial soil of Greece, and propounds its to its farthest heights. System has suc- problems to the more vigorous, cultured, ceeded system, and school followed school, and discriminative Hellenic mind. A quicker leaving the problem still unresolved. Phil. life runs through the veins of that wonderosophy first appears in the East, puzzling, ful people; a finer and sprightlier intellect with its mysteries, the infancy of the race. flashes its creations upon no impassive spirits, In the dreamy and speculative character of and plays its fancies round no indifferent Oriental mind it finds a ready reception : hearts. but not to the Children of the Sun is it Here, then, Philosophy may look for given to read the open secret.” An intense some response to its questionings. A and overshadowing sense of the infinite thinker of Ionia appears seeking, amid the brings such a paralysis upon all active indi- uncertain light, some traces of a beginning. vidual consciousness, as to leave little signi- Amid the shadows of chaotic and primal ficance to the inquiry; since the total absorp- elements, a first principle is discovered, tion of the individual in the universal, de- the process of creation traced, a system stroys the very conditions of the relation founded; and now the long centuries resought to be determined. The personal sound with the noise of contentious schools. and the impersonal, the one and the many, By what many and diverse lines of inquiry ; are identified as the homogeneous parts of by what slight but sure gradations of adan insoluble whole, bound together by the vance, Philosophy travelled from Ionia to iron chain of necessity, and committed to the Alexandria, through Italian, Eleatic, Socratic, uncertain guidance of some mysterious and and Academician schools, to the lofty spiritunknown power. From such a faith, throw- ualism and extreme generalizations of the ing its fatalistic spell around all life and later Platonist, we may not here fully conthought, results that philosophy of profound sider. We must pass this imost brilliant indifference, which finds so sublime an ex- period in the world's annals, so ripe in its pression in the Indian Bhagavad-Gita, and intellectual life, and so fruitful in its fountain the Vedas and Puranas.

thoughts and its great dames, with a rapid

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