A Rudimentary Treatise on the Metallurgy of Copper

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J. Weale, 1860 - 232 páginas
 

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Página 7 - Acts of Parliament were passed in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. to prevent the exportation of brass and copper, lest there should not be metal enough left in the kingdom fit for making guns and other engines of war, and for household utensils...
Página 191 - Ground bottle glass, or any other flux 10 parts ; heat the whole together in a covered crucible, and keep the copper in a state of fusion for twenty minutes or half an hour, at the end of which time it will be found at the bottom of the crucible, perfectly pure. The quantity of copper scales must vary in proportion to the supposed impurity of the copper to be operated on ; but the proportions here given will be found to answer very well for the average kind of English copper. The explanation of this...
Página 201 - The first step in making brass is to plunge slips of copper into melted zinc till an alloy of somewhat difficult fusion be formed, to raise the heat, and add the remaining proportion of the copper. The brass of the first fusion is broken to pieces, and melted with a fresh quantity of zinc, to obtain the finished brass. Each melting takes about 8 or 9 hours. The metal is now cast into plates, about 40 inches long by 26 inches broad, and from one third to one half inch thick. The moulds are, in this...
Página 60 - ... which, is a circular metallic trough, perforated with six holes, each about two feet in diameter, and into all these openings a sieve is closely fitted. A large piston working in a cylinder placed in the centre of this arrangement, and which is moved by an eccentric, driven either by water or steam power, is made to alternately raise and depress the level of the water in the box and consequently also in the sieves, which are fixed water-tight into the rings on the top of it. By this motion of...
Página 198 - The first account of the alloy of copper and zinc transmitted to the present times was written by Aristotle, who states that a people who inhabited a country adjoining the Euxine Sea prepared their copper of a beautiful white color by mixing and cementing it with an earth found there and not with tin, as was apparently the custom. Strabo also alludes to the preparation of the alloy of copper and zinc by the Phrygians from the calcination of certain earths found in the neighborhood of Ande'ra, and...
Página 23 - ... 4, a flame is produced by blowing that is long, slender* and blue, is hottest at the outermost point a, and is an oxidizing flame. This action, however, is strongest slightly beyond a, about d in the stream of heated gas. If now the point of the blow-pipe be held as ir Ht.4 I L -._ fig. 5, somewhat higher than before, and not quite within the flame, a larger and flc...
Página 191 - ... bottom of the crucible, perfectly pure, while the iron, lead, arsenic, &c., &c., with which this metal is usually contaminated, will be oxidized by the scales, and will dissolve in the flux, or be volatilized. Thus he has obtained perfectly pure copper from brass, bellmetal, gun-metal, and several other alloys, containing from 4 up to 50 per cent. of iron, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, &c. The scales of copper are cheap, being the product of every large manufactory. Copper melts at a white...
Página 8 - ... those practised at that time in all other refining countries, we cannot help admiring the ingenuity and judgment of those old metallurgists who, aided only by their own observation, worked out a system which, while so well adapted to all the circumstances of the locality, can be used in the treatment of every known variety of ore and has withstood, with scarcely a change, the keenest research of science.
Página 7 - Commons by the workers in brass, stating that " England by reason of the inexhaustible plenty of calamine might become the staple of brass manufacture for itself and foreign parts, and that the continuing the brass works of England would occasion plenty of rough copper to be brought in.
Página 226 - ... laid upon it through a pair of rollers, one of which is covered with four or five thicknesses of blanketing, which causes the peculiar raised or embossed appearance of the impression. In such cases, where there are three, four, or more...

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