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under the laws of the United States. They also have cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several states, or the circuit courts, as the case may be, of all causes where an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States. They also have cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the states, of all suits at common law where the United States sue, and the matter in dispute amounts, exclusive of costs, to one hundred dollars. They have also cognizance, exclusively of the courts of the several states, of all suits against consuls or vice-consuls, except for offences greater than those above mentioned.

§ 24. A salaries of the district judges are as follow: in Vermont $800; in Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Ohio, $1000; in New Jersey and Delaware $1200; in Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia, $1500; in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, $1600; in Virginia and South Carolina, $1800; and in Louisiana $2000 per annum.

$ 25. A circuit court consists of a justice of the supreme court and the district judge. The United States is divided into seven circuits, as follow: The first district includes the districts of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island; the second those of Vermont, Connecticut, and New York; the third those of New Jersey and Pennsylvania; the fourth those of Maryland and Delaware; the fifth those of Virginia and North Carolina; the sixth those of South Carolina and Geors gia ; the seventh those of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. There is no circuit court in the districts of Louisiana and Maine. The district courts of those districts have jurisdiction of all causes cognizable in circuit courts, except in cases of appeals and writs of error, which in Louisiana lie to the supreme court, and in Maine to the circuit court of Massachusetts. The circuit courts are held twice a year in each district.

26. The circuit courts have original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several states, of all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity, where the matter in dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of five hundred dollars, and the United States are plaintiffs, or petitioners; or an alien is a party; or the suit is between a citizen of the state where the suit

; is brought, and a citizen of another state. They have exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, with a few exceptions, and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts, of the crimes and offences cognizable therein. No person can be arrested in one district for trial in another, in any civil action before a circuit or district court; and no civil suit can be brought before either



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court against an inhabitant of the United States, by any original process in any other district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving the writ; nor can any district or circuit court have cognizance of any

suit to recover the contents of any promissory note or other chose in action in favour of an assignee, unless a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover the contents if no assignment had been made, except in cases of foreign bills of exchange. The circuit courts have also appellate jurisdiction from the district courts under certain regulations and restrictions. In suits commenced in state courts, against an alien, or a citizen of another state, if the matter in dispute exceeds $500, the defendant may remove the cause for trial into the circuit court. And in any action commenced in a state court, where the title of land is concerned, whose value exceeds $500, if either party claims under a grant from a state other than that in which the suit is pending, the cause may be removed for trial to the circuit court, although the parties be citizens of the same state.

$ 27. The attorney general of the United States is the public prosecutor before the

supreme court.

It is likewise his duty to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law, when required by the president. He may also be consulted by the heads of departments, touching any matters that may concern those departments. He has a salary of $3000 per annum.

$28. The public prosecutors before the circuit and district courts are the district attorneys, of whom there is one in each district. These attorneys are compensated by fees, which are taxed by the respective courts. In Louisiana the district attorney receives an additional compensation of $600 per annum from the United States; there is also an allowance of $200 per annum to the attorney of each of the districts except Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South Carolina.

$.29. There is a marshal for each district, with the powers of a sheriff, who attends both the district and circuit courts. His fees are regulated by law. The marshals for the districts of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New Jersey, North Carolina, Kentucky, Ohio, East Tennessee, West Tennessee, and Louisiana, have each an additional compensation of $200 per annum from the United States.

30. There is a clerk of court in each district, who attends both district and circuit courts. Their fees and compensations for attending court, and for travelling to attend circuit courts, are fixed by law.

$ 31. The clerks of courts are appointed by the courts, the attorneys and marshals by the president, by whom they are removeable at pleasure.

0 32. Jurors and witnesses in the United States' courts are allowed i dollar 25 cents per day, and five cents per mile for travelling to and from their respective places of abode.

The conclusion of the Review of the Political Institutions of the United States will be given in the commencement of the third volume. This will contain an account of the following institutions, viz. the army, including a list of the general staff, the departments of the adjutant-general, inspector-general, paymaster-general, and quartermaster-general, the ordnance and hospital departments, and the duties of the respective officers as to the instruction of the troops, military correspondence, the selection of places of encampment, and posting guards; the mustering and inspecting the regulars and militia detachments, the regulation of the police of the camp and of the march, the opening and repairing roads and constructing of bridges for the passage of the army, &c. &c. the formation of the corps of engineers, and of the regiments of artillery, dragoons, riflemen, infantry, and rangers; the militia and volunteer corps ; the rules and regulations

of the army, as to rank, promotion, uniform, &c. An account of the arsenals, magazines, and armories of the United States. The navy and marine corps. Navy regulations. The navy pension fund. The light-house establishment. The regulations of privateers and letters of marque. The regulation of ships in the merchant service. The revenues of the United States, with statements of the receipts and espenditures from the establishment of the federal constitution. The rise and progress of the public debt. The sinking fund. The land-offices and surveyor-general's department. The postoffice and post-roads, &c. &c. To conclude with a review of the nature and form of government in the District of Columbia.







$1. Meeting of Congress. 52. President's message. 53. Expedition of

General Hull. $ 4. War on the ocean. $5. Refusal of the militia. 86. Pacific advances to reat Britain. $7. Armistice. 58. Correspondence with admiral Warren. $9. Subjects recommended to the consideration of congress. 510. Merchants' bonds. $11. State of the treasury. $12. Conclusion.

81. On Monday the 2d of November, 1812, being the . day fixed by law, congress convened at Washington City. A quorum of the house of representatives appeared that day, but the requisite number of the senate did not meet till the 3d, when a joint committee from both houses waited on the president, to inform him that they were ready to receive his communication.

92. On the following day he as usual transmitted his introductory message, accompanied with documents containing copies of letters from the secretary of state, authorizing Mr. Russell to conclude an armistice with the British

government; Mr. Russell's correspondence with lord Castlereagh upon this subject; a correspondence between admiral Warren and the secretary of state ; a previous correspondence between Mr. Russell and lord Castlereagh on the subject of the repeal of the orders in council; and Mr. Erving's letter to the secretary of state, inclosing a correspondence with the Danish minister of foreign affairs. In subsequent messages the president communicated further information relative to the pacific advances of the American government, and the correspondence between the department of war and the governors of Massachusetts and Connecticut, on the subject of the militia. In taking a view of this introductory message, we shall, for the sake of perspicuity, class the whole of these papers together.

§ 3. After congratulations on the unusual degree of health enjoyed throughout the country, the abundance of the harvest, and the successful cultivation of other branches of industry, the

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