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various meanings : (1.) The effusion of miraculous powers on the feast of Pentecost :: (2.) The particular talents and gifts bestowed on the early Christians, and (3.) The inward assist. ances by which men's minds are renewed, as in Luke, ix. 13.: “Your heavenly Father will give “the Holy Spirit to them that ask him.”
The personality of the Holy Ghost is thus proved : (1.) All the attributes of a person are ascribed to him. 6 The Spirit searcheth all things.” (1 Cor. ii. 10.) “ The Spirit maketh intercession for us." (Rom. vii. 26.) “Grieve not the Holy Spirit.” (Eph. vi. 30.) “ All these work“eth that one and self-same spirit, dividing to
every man severally as he will." (1 Cor. xii. 11.) Such affections can only be ascribed to a person.
(2.) The actions of a person are ascribed to him. “ The Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send “in my name ; he shall teach you all things, and
bring all things to your remembrance.” (John, xiv. 26.) “ He will reprove the world of sin: He “ will guide you into all truth : He will show
a Acts, X. 44. “ The Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the Word.'
Gal. iii. 2. “ Receive ye the Spirit by the works of the law.” It may be observed that the words, Spirit, and Holy Ghost, are applied in the New Testament to distinct objects, the former signifying the miraculous powers of acting, and the latter those of internal illumination. See Whitby's Appendix to Matt. 12.
you things to come.” (c. xvi. v. 13.) These are the actions only of a person.
2. The Holy Ghost is God.
(1.) The name of God is ascribed to him. Thus, “ Ananias and Sapphira, who lied unto the Holy Ghost,” are said" to lye not unto men, but unto God.” (Acts, v. 3, 4.) a
(2.) The attributes of God are ascribed to him. Thus, he is said “ to guide into all truth, and to shew the things to come.” (John, 16. 13.) “The
Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.” (1 Cor. ii. 10.)
(3.) The actions of God are ascribed to him. “ The Spirit maketh intercession for us.” (Rom. viii. 26.) “ We are changed into the image of the Lord by the Spirit.” (2 Cor. iii. 18.) Indeed, the adversaries of the Trinityd are aware, that if it
See Dwight's Theol. ser. lxx.
The word searcheth here means' more than inquireth, for the Apostle expresses the same idea in the following verse : The things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.” See Scott's Chris. Life, v. 3. p. 64.
© The Divinity and Personality of the Holy Gbost, are both established by Matt. xii. 31. For it would be absurd to say, that blasphemy against God should be forgiven, while the same sin against an inferior being should be uopardonable. Further, blasphemy against an attribute, is a coutradiction in terms.
With respect to the nature of the Holy Ghost, the two priacipal heresies are, the Macedonians and the Socinians. The former held that he was a created person; the latter conceived that be par.
is once proved that the Holy Ghost is a person, his divinity will necessarily follow.
The arguments in favour of the former, therefore, serve also to establish the latter.
II. We propose to consider the procession of the Holy Ghost, from the Father and the Son.
The observations which were made on the use of the term begotten, with respect to the second Person, are also true of the application of the term procession to the third Person of the Trinity. We only use them because they belong to the words Son and Spirit. The Spirit in things that we understand, is something that proceeds ; and the Son is a person begotten. We, therefore, believing that the Holy Ghost is a person, apply the word procession to the manner of his emanation from the Father, though at the same time we must acknowledge we have no distinct conception of it.
The only question on this point, is whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only, or from the Father and the Son. In the first disputes with Macedonius, concerning the divinity of the Holy Ghost, the only contest was, whether he was truly God. This was decided by the Council of Constantinople, in the creed of which it was said, that he proceeded from the Father. This creed was further approved by the Council of Ephesus, which decreed, that no alteration should be made in it; yet about the end of the sixth century, an addition was introduced in the western Church, by which the Holy Ghost was affirmed to proceed from the Son as well as from the Father. This became the cause of mutual reproach during the disputes which occurred in the ninth century, between the Greek and Latin Churches, about the extent of their jurisdiction; the latter being accused of adding to the ancient faith, and the former being charged with detracting from the dignity of the Son.
took of the Divine nature, but only as an energy or power, and therefore denied his personality. See S. August. hær. 52 ; Photius's Epist. 1. sec. 10., and Catech. Racov. c. 6.
2 « The Holy Ghost is of the Father and the Son, not made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding." Athanas. Creed.
• Macedonius was Bishop of Constantinople, and was condemned in the second general council of Constantinople, A. D. 381. Dr. Mosheim states, that he denied the personality, not the divinity, of the Holy Ghost. (Hist. y. I. p. 2. c. 5.) The authorities in the preceding note affirm the contrary.
Our Church receives the creed according to the usage of the western Churches; and for this we have Scriptural authority. Thus, our Saviour says, (John, xv. 26.) “ I will send unto you “the Comforter from the Father, even the Spirit “ of Truth, which proceedeth from the Father.” Now, since he sends him, and that he was to supply his room and act in his name, this implies a relation and a sort of subordination in the Spirit to the Son. This proof, though not full or explicit, is yet sufficient to justify our adhering to the creed as it now stands.
a This innovation was first made in the French and Spanish Churches, and was strenuously opposed by Leo III. Bishop of Rome. It was, however, established by Pope Nicholas I. and his
See Bower's Lives of the Popes, v. 4. pp. 178 and 352. Ed. Lond. 1759; and Fuller's Eccles. Hist. v. 5. c. 10. p. ill.
See Mosheim's Hist. cen. ix. p. 2. c. 3.
a Our Lord says, “ I proceeded forth, and came from God, neither came I of myself, but he sent me.” (John, viii. 42.) Now in this text, Christ's mission seems to depend on his procession. For the same reason the mission of the Holy Ghost by the Son, should imply his procession from him. See Prideaux's Fasc. Con. C. 2. Q. 5, and Pearson on the Creed, Art. 8.