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ever, after much contention, and aided by the good offices of Winthrop, the aged governor of Connecticut, Stuyvesant was driven to consent to a capitulation. The other settlements on the Hudson and Delaware swore allegiance to the English soon after, and the conquest of New Netherland was completed.


New Netherland becomes New York-Colonel Nichols gover

nor-Meeting on Long Island—Incorporation of the city of New York— Arbitrary system of government established Lovelace appointed governor-War with the Dutch-New York reconquered—Administration of Colve-Retrocession of New York-Government of Andros—Difficulties with Connecticut--Spirited conduct of the Puritans-Disaffection of the people—A representative government demanded—Reply of the Duke of York—Description of the province --Its prosperity - City of New York, its population and public buildings Character of the people--Andros recalled Dongan appointed governor-Concession of political privileges—Indian affairs Convention at Albany-Designs of the French--Instructions of the Duke of York-Conduct of Dongan-Invasion of the Five Nations by the French-Peace solicited—Speech of De . la Barre-Reply of Garrangula.

NEW NETHERLAND having thus, without bloodshed, become subjected to the Englisn crown. Colonel Sir Richard Nichols took upon himself the government of the conquered province as deputy-governor, and in honour of the proprie




tary, that portion of the territory retained by him, together with the little capital of New Amsterdam, acquired the name of New York.

All the tract of land previously belonging to New Netherland, which was bounded by the Delaware Bay on the west, by the ocean and the Hudson River on the east, and by the present state of New York on the north, having been granted by the duke to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, became henceforth a separate and distinct jurisdiction, under the name of the province of New Jersey.

During the short period that Nichols remained governor of New York, commissioners, appointed for that purpose, determined the boundary between the latter province and Connecticut, and under their decision the whole of Long Island was included within the territory of the new proprietary.

On the 1st of March, 1665, a convention of delegates was held at Hempstead, on Long Island, for the purpose of adjusting the limits of their respective townships, and the appointment of proper local officers. Three months later, the city of New York was incorporated, the exercise of municipal authority being intrusted to a mayor, five aldermen, and a sheriff; but the people themselves derived no political privileges from a change of rulers. The governor, and a council devoted to his interests, retained the sole right to impose taxes, and to enact or modify such laws throughout the province as they thought proper. This arbitrary mode of government was productive of the usual discontent; but Nichols, busied for the most of the time in confirming the ancient Dutch grants, paid no heed to the murmurs of “factious republicans."

Returning to England in 1667, he was succeeded by Francis Lovelace, who, following out the system adopted by his predecessor, took upon himself both the executive and judicial functions, and instructed his deputy on the western shore of the Delaware to repress all disaffection in that quarter, by laying such taxes upon the people as might give them « liberty for no thought but how to discharge them."

Adopting this principle as his rule of action, Lovelace imposed a duty of ten per cent. upon all imports and exports. But this high-handed measure was met by a vigorous protest from eight of the Long Island towns, who boldly expressed their aversion to all taxes levied under the sole authority of the governor and council, and demanded a participation in the government of the province by means of an annual assembly. Lovelace and his subservient subordinates responded to the protest by ordering it to be publicly burned by the common hangman.

The affairs of the province continued to be administered in this despotic manner until 1673,



when Charles II., having been drawn by the intrigues of Louis XIV. into a war with the Dutch, a small squadron belonging to the latter, and commanded by Cornelius Evertsen, anchored, on the 30th of July, in the vicinity of Staten Island.

Lovelace appears to have been absent at this time, and Manning, the commandant of the fort, no sooner received a summons to surrender, than he sent a messenger to arrange the terms of capitulation. Not a blow was struck. The people of New Jersey quietly returned to their old allegiance, and the Swedes and Fins followed their example. The whole territory of New Netherland having thus quietly submitted to the arms of the States General, Anthony Colve was appointed governor-general, and Lovelace obtained permission to return to England in the Dutch fleet. Manning was subsequently tried by courtmartial for treachery and cowardice, and found guilty. Having, however, in the mean time, made interest in England with the king and the Duke of York, he escaped being sentenced to death, but was adjudged to have his sword publicly broken over his head, and to be incapable of serving the crown for the future in any civil or military capacity.

Governor Colve retained his office but a short period, for at the close of the war, which took place in February, 1674, it was agreed by treaty mutually to restore all conquests. To remove any disputes which might subsequently arise in respect to his title in consequence of the previous surrender of the province, the Duke of York obtained from the king a new patent, covering the same lands which had been granted him in 1664. On the 1st of August, two days after this patent was executed, the duke appointed Major Edmund Andros to receive possession of the province at the hands of the Dutch authorities, and to renew the absolute authority of the proprietary. On the 31st of October, this was quietly accomplished. Hoping to obtain some concessions from the new governor, the inhabitants petitioned to be allowed an assembly, and Andros favoured the prayer; but it was disapproved of by the proprietary. The settlers of the eastern portion of Long Island, preferring the jurisdiction of Connecticut to that of New York, also petitioned Andros to be allowed to unite themselves with that colony; but, instead of their wishes being acceded to, the governor soon afterward organized an expedition for the purpose of asserting the claim of the Duke of York to all that territory embraced within his patent as far as the Connecticut River. As soon as these intentions were made known to Laet, the deputy-governor of Connecticut, he called the assembly together, who promptly ordered Captain Bull, in command of the colonial troops at Saybrook, to resist the advance of Andros. The order

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