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(e) Antas, end, limit. Lassen translates it by“ discrimen;" Thomson by “true end ;” Burnouf by en connaissent la limite.” The authors of the Peters. Dict. refer to this passage, and translate the word by "ende," "ausgang.” Telang interprets the word as meaning "settled truth.” Lassen's version gives an intelligible meaning, but it has not been shown that anta (end, limit) has the meaning of " difference.” The meaning of the passage is that only the soul has a real existence, or at least that the forms and conditions of matter have only a conditional existence. The dividing line of the two is clearly seen by the wise. Sridhara defines asat (unreal) as that which has not the nature of the soul and religious duty (dharma). In the philosophy of Kapila, sat means formal existence, and asat the formless, unmanifested Prakriti (primal matter).

(1) Lassen supposes that śarīrinās is connected with a second dehās (bodies), and suggests that the latter word means "miasmata.” He would translate the passage thus: “Mortalia hæc corpora nihil aliud sunt quam urcouasa spiritus cum illis conjuncti.” A fanciful interpretation, which cannot be maintained. Possession is often indicated by the genitive case, without a verb or noun intervening (Williams' Grammar, sec. 816). Burnouf's version is also untenable: “Ces corps qui procedent d'une âme,” &c. The subject here is not the creation of the body, but its use by the soul as a dwelling-place.

(9) śāśvato' yam purāņo. śāśwata, eternal as to the future; purāņa, eternal as to the past.

(1) Sambhāvitasya. "Pour un homme de sens" (Burnouf); but Lassen's version, “viri generosi,” is, I think, better. The Hindū commentators explain the word as meaning “honoured ;” but sambhāva means birth, origin, and the appeal is to Arjuna's pride of birth. Gatti has “generoso."

(i) Buldhi (intellect), but used here, it seems, as in dist. 39, for “doctrine."

( ) Yogakshema, primarily a law-term for an insurance or guarantee of property. The practice of insurance is of very ancient date, for in the laws of Manu we are told that a king should levy taxes on traders only after a due consideration of the rates of purchase and sale ... and "the charges of securing (insuring ?) the goods carried” (vii. 127). A secondary meaning is care or anxiety.

(k) Sanga, attachment or desire. This is an important word in the Yoga system. It is formed from sanj, to hold or adhere to, and corresponds to the Fr. attachement. It means any affection or desire by which the mind is bound to the object of desire, and is thus prevented from gaining that perfect equanimity and absence of passion which it is the object of the Yoga discipline to form. Thomson translates the word by covetousness,” but this, in its restricted modern sense, is much too limited. Schlegel and Lassen have “ambitione sepositâ;" but sanga is not ambition merely; it is more than this; including it, but taking a wider range. Burnouf translates it by desir, but this is too wide. It is not every kind of desire that is forbidden, for some kinds are unavoidable, and some are of an indifferent quality, but such desire as binds and entangles the soul by connecting it mediately with some form of matter, and producing an inward commotion or bias.

(1) Dhāslā, a sign, means primarily speech or language. It is used to denote the distinguishing mark or sign of a :person, for “ his speech bewrayeth him."

(m) Bhāvana. “Sui conscientia” (Lassen); “reflexion” (Thomson); “sammlung des Geist's” (Lorinser, who adds, " am meisten dürfte im Deutschen hier der Ausdruck Beisich sein entsprechen "). Srīdhara interprets it by dhyāna, meditation. Cf. śabdabhāvanā vidhiriti, the right condition of speech is due order (Madhus, in Pet. Dict.)

READING THE THIRD.

ARJUXA spoke. If knowledge is deemed by thee to be better than action, O destroyer of foes! why dost thou engage me to this dreadful deed, Keśava ?

Thou bewilderest my mind by these ambiguous words: tell me distinctly what is the one certain (course) by which I may attain to the better state.

THE HOLY ONE spoke. There is in this world a twofold rule of life (a), as I said before, O sinless one that of the Sānkhyans, by devotion of knowledge, and that of the Yogins, by devotion of work.

A man who does not undertake works attains not to freedom from work, nor does he obtain the perfect state by mere renouncement.3 i See c. ii. p. 37.

spiritual Supreme Essence, at whose · The Sānkhya school is that of command all existing things come Kapila ; the Yoga that of Patanjali. into being. Kapila taught that final In their physical theories they gene. emancipation from matter can only rally coincide, and in the questions be obtained by knowledge, meaning relating to the soul. They differed, by knowledge his own philosophy however, in two very important chiefly. Patanjali taught that it is points. Kapila did not recognise a gained chiefly by pious meditation, personal Supreme Deity, but only whereby the soul is joined in thought primordial matter, emanating into to the Great Supreme, and is finally distinct forms by a kind of blind absorbed in him. instinct. Patanjali exalted philo- 3 The nature of a true renuncia. sophy into religion by setting forth a tion is taught in c. v. The proper

5 For no man ever continues to cease from action, even

for a short time, since every one is compelled by the Modes (gunas) · of nature to act, even against his will.

He who, restraining the organs of action, remains inactive, but yet remembers in his heart the objects of sense, he, confused in soul, is called a "false devotee."

But he who, having subdued the senses by the heart (manas), Arjuna! undertakes the devotion of work by the organs of action, without attachment, is highly esteemed.

Do thou every appointed work, for action is better than inaction, and even the means of subsistence for the body cannot be gained by thee if inactive.

This world is bound by the bonds of action, except in work done on account of sacrifice. Apply thyself to work for this purpose, O son of Kunti! but without

attachment. IO When the Lord of all beings 5 (6) had created mankind

Yoga system, in its highest form, ex. hearing, sight, smelling, taste, and cluded all voluntary work; but the the action of the skin. enlightened mind of our author led 3 For the meaning of the term him to a modification of this extreme “bonds of action " see c. ii. p. 37. view. Śrīdhara says that works 4 Śankara refers yajna, sacrifice, connected with caste must be done. to Vishņu, as the Ishwara or Lord. He also explains “freedom from Ananda has the same explanation, work” (naishkaryam) by “spiritual and both refer to fruti, revelation, knowledge (jnana), for in the i.e., the Vedas and other works of the Yoga system this was equivalent to saine authority. the mind being fixed on Brahma in 5 The lord of all beings, the su. the exercise of devotion. Śankara preme Brahmă, in his form of Brah. explains “the perfect state” as mā, ordained the sacrifice by fire. “divine knowledge.”

"He, the Supreme Ruler, created 1 For the nature of these con. the eternal sacrifice" (Manu, i. 22). stituents of Prakṣiti see Introd. p. 12. The gods were supposed to partake

? The organs of action are five- of the sacrifices through Agni. the hands, the feet, the mouth, and “Nourished by sacrifices, the gods the organs of excretion and genera- nourish mankind by sending forth tion. The five senses are those of rain” (Vishņu Purāņa, i. 6).

of old, together with sacrifice, he said, “By this shall offspring be obtained : be this your cow of plenty? (c) for (the attainment of) your desires.

Nourish ye the gods by this, and let the gods also nourish you. Thus, nourishing each other, ye shall obtain the highest good;

For the gods, nourished by sacrifice, shall give to you the desired foods. He who eats the things which are given by them without offering to them in return) is a thief.

Good men, who eat the remains of sacrifices, are freed from all their sins, but the evil, who cook only for themselves, eat sin.2

All creatures live by food; food is produced by rain; rain is (caused) by sacrifice; sacrifice is wrought by

action, 15 Know that action springs from Brahmā;3 Brahmā pro

1 K’āmaduk, from kāma (love, de. The lowest is the soul of man, called sire) and duh (to milk), the sym- kshara, divisible; the next is akshara, bolical cow of Indra, from which indivisible, explained by the word every desired good could be obtained. kuțastha, pervading all things; the Probably at first a personification third is the Supreme Being in his of the earth as the giver of food, &c. own individual personality. But

2 Cf. Manu iii. 118: “He who kshara means the whole of finite eats what has been dressed for him. created forms, the existing creation self only, eats nothing but sin ; a in its manifold parts (see c. viii. n. feast on that which remains after 1). The creative principle, in itself the offering is called the banquet of undivided, came forth from Brahmă, the good.”

and is the material source of a ma3 Brahmā, as the Creator, is the terial creation. “Being formed by author of action, and he issued from that First Cause (“That which is,' the Un the Supreme Brahmă Sir W. Jones), undiscernible, eteror Brahman. Lassen translates the nal, which is both existent (in mate. passage, “Numen e simplici et in- rial forms) and non-existent, that dividuo ortum.” Mr. Thomson's Male (Purusha) is celebrated in the version is, “The Supreme Spirit is world as Brahmā.” He is the co-existent with the Indivisible,” Supreme in his creative energy, ex. and he adds in a note, “Three cate. isting in the varied furnis of the gories of spirit are here marked out. world. Brahmā dwelt in the egg in

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