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Other Readings. c. 8. d. 41. ürjitam ūrjitain, a
varjitam, Calc. B.G. ūrjjitam, b c. x. d. 42. jnanena a and b, id.
jnātena, Calc. B.G. c. xi. d. 2. bhavavyayan bhavāpyayan, a and b bhavāpyayan, Calc. M.,
and both scholiasts. c. xi. d. 7. ihaikasthama and b, id.
ihaikam yajjagat, Calc. jagat
B.G. c. xi. d. 8. Sakshyase sakyase, a and 6
sakyase (libri omnes L.) c. xi. d. 11. diptam devam, a and b
devam (omnes Codd.) c. xi. d. 12. bhāh bhāh, a and b
bhā (Lassen, ist ed.) c. xi. d. 16. viśwarupa viswarupam, a and b viswarupam, Calc. M.,
Calc. B.G. C. xi. d. 28. abhivijvalanti a and b, id.
abhitoh valanti (Sridhara) c. xi. d. 41. tavemain ta vedam, a and b
tavedain, Calc. M., 3 L.
Codd. c. xi. d. 43. guror gurur, a and 6
gurur, Calc. B.G. and M. c. xii. d. 20. dharmyāmsi. dharmyāmțitam, a dharmāmritam (Madhu. tain dharmmāmritam, b
sūdana) c. xiii. ... ... ... a and 6 have the distich
mentioned by Lassen c. xiii. d. 1. kshetrajnamiti kshetrajnamiti, a
kshetrajna iti, P. Codd. kshetrajna iti, o
C. and D. c. xiii. d. 17. dhishtitam a and b, id.
nishtitam (1st ed. L.) c. xiv. d. 23. avatishtati a and b, id.
na) c. xiv. d. 23. nengate a and b, id.
nengati (Sridhara) c. xv, d. 3. tathopalabhy. | a and l, id.
upalabhyani (Ist ed. Las.) ate c. xv. d.. 7. manaḥshash manahshashțāni, a and 6 manaḥshashțāni, alii thāni
Codd. (Lassen) c. xv. d. 13. choshadiḥ chaushadiḥ, a and 6 chaushadiḥ, Calc. M. and
Madhusūdana c. xvi. d. 2. alolatwam alolutwam, a and 6 alolutwam, Calc. B.G. and
scholiasts c. xvi. d. 3. nātimānitā a and b, id.
nābhimānitā, Cod. Got.
ting. (Lassen) c. xvi. d. 4. abhimānaścha a and b, id.
dana) c. xvi. d. 11. upāśritāḥ a and b, id.
apāśritaḥ (Madhusūdana) c. xvi. d. 13. labdhamimam labdhamidain, a
labdhamidam, P. Cod. C. labdhamimam, 6
labdhvam, Calc. B.G. C. xvii. d. 2. tām a and b, id.
tāḥ, Cod. Gotting. (Las
sen) c. xvii. d. 6. karśayantaḥ karshayantaḥ, a and 6 karshayantah, Calc. B.G.
and M. c. xvii. d. 11. yashțavyama and b, id.
yashtavya, Cod. Gotting. c. xvii. d. 13. assishțānnam a and b, id.
amrishțānnam, Cod. Got.
ting. c. xvii. d. 15. abhyāsanam abhyasanam, a and b abhyasanam, Calc. B.G.
and M. c. xvii. d. 17. tat a and b, id.
tu, Cod. Gotting. c. xviii. d. i2. tyāginām la and b, id.
tyāginām, Calc. B.G. c. xviii. d. 13. panchemāni panchaitani, a and b panchaitani, Calc. B.G. c. xviii. 1. 15. nyāyyam nyāyam, a and
nyāyam, P. Codd. B.C.D.
ahetukam (Madhusūdana) c. xviii. d. 28. naishkriti. naikritikaḥ, a and 6 naikritikaḥ, Calc. M. auj kah
scholiasts c. xviii. d. 35. vimunchati a and b, id.
vimunchanti, Calc. B.G. c. xviii. d. 43. kshātram a and b, id.
kshātrakarma, P. Cod. D. karma
kshatrakarma, P. Cod. B. c. xviii. d. 44. gorakshya a and b, id. ** gaurakshya (Madhusū.
dana) c. xviii. d. 64. driờhamatis- dridhamitistato, a. dridhamatitato, P. Cod. tato
B.D. .. ... dridhamatitato, b dridhastamitito, Calc.
B.G. c. xviii. d. 66. mochayish | mokshayishyāmi, a and 6 mokshayishyāmi, Calc.
B.G. and M. c. xviii. d. 67. nātapaskāya a and b, id.
atapasyāya (1st ed. Las
sen) c. xviii. d. 71. muktaḥ śu. a and b, id.
(Thomson, as an emen.
dation). c. xviii. d. 75. etadguhya- a and b, id.
etad guhvatamam param, inaham param
Calc. M. c. xviii. d. 78. bhūtirdru. bhūtirdruvānitirmatir, a | bhūtirdruvānitirmatir, vāniti matir bhūtirdruvanītimatir, 61 Calc B. G. and all the
1 This is undoubtedly the true read. nitiḥ | matir mama, and translate niti as ing, but the other is found in all MSS., “good conduct ;” but iti certainly be. I think, except the one marked b. If longs to matir. Lassen says he would nitir were the true reading, then we not accept any other arrangement if 600 must divide the sentence into dhruvā MSS. were against it.
WHILE this work was going through the press, the translation of the Bhagavad Gītā which K. T. Telang has prepared for Max Müller's “Sacred Books of the East” came into my hands. It is much superior, I think, to the translation which he published in Bombay (1875), but it is based on a principle which will not be accepted by European scholars. “My aim has been,” he writes, “to make the translation as close and literal a rendering as possible of the Gītā, as interpreted by the commentators Sankarācharya, Sridharasvāmin, and Madhusudana Sarasvatī. ... In some places these commentators differ among themselves, and then I have made my own choice” (Introd., p. 35). I, too, have consulted Hindū commentators largely, but have found them deficient in critical insight, and more intent on finding or forming Vedāntist doctrines in every part than in giving the true sense of the author. I have examined their explanations with the freedom of inquiry that is common to Western habits of thought, and thus, while I have sometimes followed their guidance, I have been often obliged to reject their comments as misrepresenting the doctrines of the author. I append some instances of this kind, that my readers may be able to form their own judgment.
(1.) “When your mind, confounded by what you have heard, will stand firm and steady in contemplation” (ii. 53). Here the reference is to śruti, which means (1) hearing, (2) revelation, the sacred books. Hindū commentators say that the meaning is, what you have heard about the means of obtaining desirable things; assuming as a certain proposition that the Vedas could not be attacked. The doctrine of the Bhagavad Gitā is, however, that the devotee (yogin), when fixed in meditation, lays aside the Vedas and Vedic ritual. Lassen's version is, “Sententiis theologicis antea distracta quando mens," &c.
(2.) “ Others perform the sacrifice ... of Vedic study” (iv. 28). The word is swādhyāya, reading to one's self. There is no mention of the Vedas, and the author of the Bhagavad Gītā would probably bave preferred the Yoga-sūtra of Patanjali.
(3.) “ Although he only wishes to learn devotion, he rises above the (fruits of action laid down in the) divine word” (vi. 44) This is the interpretation of Hindū commentators, but the words included between brackets are not in the text. This has only, “He rises above (or passes beyond) the Brahma-word,” which here means the Vedas. “Ii transgresse la doctrine brāhmanique” (Burnouf).
(4.) “The offering (of an oblation to any divinity) which is the cause of the production and development of all things is named action” (viii. 3). The word translated “offering," and explained as the offering of an oblation to a god, is visarga, which means the divine emanation into the varied forms of life, i.e., the creation of the world, according to Hindū ideas. There is no reference to a gift, whether to gods or men. The interpretation given to the word in the Peters. Dict. is this : “ Neben sarga (der primitiven Schöpfung durch Brahman) so v. a. secundäre Schöpfung, die Schöpfung im einselnen durch Purusha,” and reference is made to the Bhāgavata Purāya, ii. 10, 1, 3.
(5.) “Entering the earth, I by my power support all things, and becoming the juicy moon, I nourish all herbs” (xv. 13). The words translated "juicy moon” are in the original soma (bhūtwa) rasātmakam, (having become) savoury juice. “Conversus in succum, qui saporem iis impertit” (Lassen). There is no reason for supposing that the author of the Bhagavad Gitā believed the moon to be juicy, or that it had anything to do with the vegetation of plants. Brahma is said to nourish them by entering in the form of the sap, which is their life. Soma very seldom denotes the moon; it is generally (1) sap, (2) the sacred juice of the Asclepias acida.
Ark, the ship in which Manu was
saved during the deluge, 58 n.
Asat, what, 137 n., 165.
Asita, a rishi, III.
Asuras, referred to, 17 n., 88, 103 n.,
Aswattha, the sacred fig-tree, 114,
Ātatāyinas, what, 30.
Ātman, the soul, 13.
Atyartham, meaning of, 91.
Aushadha, meaning of, 104 n.
Avarta, Avartin, meaning of, 100.
Aryakta, the Unmanifested, 7, 12,
Bardasanes, referred to, 196.
94 n., 100, 108, 149, 153, 157. 96 n., 116 n., 191.
Bhakti, meaning of, 109.
Bhishma, uncle of Pāņdu, 2, 21, 124.