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55 By (this) worship he knows Me truly; what I am and

how great (I am); then, having known Me truly, he enters into Me immediately.

Though he may do all works constantly, yet having found refuge in Me, he obtains, by my grace, the eternal, imperishable seat.1

Renouncing all works in Me by meditation, devoted to Me, given up to the devotion of the mind (h), fix thy thoughts constantly on Me.

Thinking on Me, thou wilt surmount, by my grace, every difficulty; but if, from self-conceit, thou wilt not listen, thou wilt utterly perish.

If, taking refuge in self-conceit, thou shalt think, “I will not fight,” thy resolution is vain; nature will com

pel thee. Co Bound by thine office,? which springs from thy own

nature, O son of Kuntī! that which thou dost not wish to do through delusion, thou wilt do even against thy will.

The Lord, who dwells in the hearts of all,3 Arjuna ! ever makes all things, as if mounted on a machine, revolve by his illusive power.

Seek refuge in him with all thy soul (R), O son of Bharata ! (then) shalt thou obtain, by his grace, supreme repose, the eternal seat.

Thus a doctrine, more mysterious than any (other) mystery, has been declared to thee by Me; having meditated thereon fully, do as thou wilt.

1 i.e., the Supreme Brahma. centre of all vital activity. In the

2 By his duty as a Kshatriya opinion of the Hindūs it is especially (warrior), for which his nature had the habitation of the soul, and therebeen formed.

fore of Brahma, from whom it has 3 The heart is supposed to be the emanated.

Hear now again my supreme words, most mysterious of all: Thou art greatly beloved by Me, therefore I will de

clare what is for thy good. 65 Devote thy heart to Me, worship Me, sacrifice to Me,

bow down before Me; so shalt thou come to Me. I promise thee truly (for) thou art dear to Me.

Forsaking all religious duties (j) (dharma), come to Me as the only refuge. I will release thee from all thy sins; 1 grieve not.

This (doctrine) is not to be declared to him who practises not austere rites, or who never worships, or who wishes not to hear, nor to one who reviles Me.2

He who shall teach this supreme mystery to those who worship Me, he, offering to Me this highest (act of) worship, shall doubtless come to Me.

Nor is there any one among mankind who can do Me better service than he, nor shall any other on earth be

more dear to Me than he. 70 And by him who shall read this holy converse held by

us I may be sought through this sacrifice of knowledge. This is my decree.

1 In the Sānkhya system, as a strong rivalry has always existed. taught by Kapila, the deliverance of But they are not the only persons the soul can only be obtained by who would revile this doctrine. knowledge. In the system of Patan. There were many who cared little jali, the soul, by pious meditation, for either Vishņu or Śiva; for they emancipates itself. This divine desired only such physical enjoy. agency in the deliverance of the ments as this world offers. See soul is a doctrine peculiar to the chap. xvi. 8. This (doctrine) deBhagavad Gitā.

notes the whole of the system un. 2 There is here probably a refer- folded in the Gītā. ence, as Mr. Thomson suggests, to By not practising austere rites is, the Śaivyas, who worship Śiva as according to Sridhara, to be “ with. the Supreme Being; for between out the practice of religious duties" them and the Vaishṇāvas, or wor. (dharma). shippers of Vishnu, as the Supreme,

And the man who may hear it in faith, without reviling, shall attain, when freed (from the body), to the happy regions of the just.

Has this been heard, O son of Prithā! with thy mind fixed on one (object)? Has thy trouble of mind, born of ignorance, been destroyed, O subduer of wealth ?

ARJUNA spoke. My trouble is destroyed. By thy favour, O sinless one! the holy doctrine has been received by me (). I am now firm (in resolve); my doubt has gone, and I will act according to thy word.

SANJAYA spoke. Thus I heard this wonderful converse of Vāsudeva and the high-minded son of Pșithā, and my hair stood up on end. 75 By the favour of Vyāsa I heard this supreme mystery,

(this doctrine of) yoga, taught by Křishṇa himself, the Lord of yoga, in person.

Remembering, O king! again and again this wonderful holy converse of Keśava (Krislıņa) and Arjuna, I rejoice without ceasing.

And remembering again and again that most wonderful form of Hari, my astonishment is great and I rejoice evermore.

Wherever are Křishņa, the Lord of yoga, and the archer son of Prithā, there prosperity, victory, and greatness 1 are certain. Thus I judge.

i The first is interpreted by Śrīdsion (abhivriddhi) or greatness. Śan. hara as a royal prosperity, and the kara’s gloss agrees with this. last (bhūti) as an increasing expan

Thus the Bhagavad Gītā, Reading the Eighteenth, whose title is



PHILOLOGICAL NOTES. (a) Yat karma . . . tyajet. The construction is somewhat difficult, but not, as Mr. Thomson calls it, "ungrammatical.” Lassen says, “Lenior foret orationis structura si scriptum esset, ya karma, sed habet lectio recepta quo se tueatur. Verbo in modo potestativo posito subintelligitur tum conjunctio conditionalis, tum pronomen indefinitum; si quis omittat opus quidpiam ... is,” &c. There seems to be only an indefinite pronoun to be supplied, and we may translate the passage, “Whatever work (one) may renounce."

(6) Akušalam karma. Lassen translates the words by “minus prosperum opus.” Srīdhara explains kućala to mean pleasant or causing pleasure, as a bath at mid-day in summer, and such-like things. Telang follows this explanation. In the Peters. Dict. the word is translated by “Sich in gutem Gustande, in der gehörigen ordnung befindend.” Lassen's translation seems to be the true one.

(c) Ahaitukam. “Does not recognise the true cause of existence), i.e., final emancipation from matter" (Thomson); “qui principiis caret” (Lassen). Srīdhara's comment is “not acknowledging creation, not devoted to truth, and not resting in the Supreme.IIetu means cause, and also reason, judgment. The meaning seems to be, as Lassen interprets the passage, that their knowledge or science is not based on reason, or any sound principle of judgment. “Science sans principes” (Burnouf).

(d) Prakrita. “Vilis” (Lassen); “ without discrimination, i.e., adopting a common mode of action, not varying with the nature of the thing to be done” (Thomson); "who has no application” (Telang). The word means common, in the sense of vulgar, and thus Prakṣit is the name of a dialectic or vulgar form of Sanskrit.

(e) Ayathāvat. Lassen interprets the word by “incongrue;" Brunouf by “confusément;" Thomson, " by which one takes

a wrong view.” Dr. Lorinser translates it by “nicht wie's geziemend ist," and this, I think, is the true meaning. Yathāvat corresponds to the French “comme il faut.”

(j) Ātmabuddhiprasādajam. “E mentis ipsius serenitate nata” (Lassen, whom Thomson follows); “It flows from knowledge of the soul free from obscurity” (Telang), and this is the interpretation commonly given by Hindū commentators.

(g) Āstikyam. “Fides in rebus divinis” (Lassen); “ belief in another world” (Thomson); “la connaissance des choses divines" (Burnouf). The word asti = Gr. xoti, and the derivative implies that something essentially or eternally exists, referring, according to Hindū commentators, to Brahma and a future world. The negative nastika is found in Manu (ii. 11), where it is said that if one shall despise revelation (śruti) and tradition (smriti), he must be cast out by the virtuous as a sceptic (nastika). Sir W. Jones translates the word “atheist.” Lassen's version seems to be most correct, but Sridhara confines the expression to belief in another world. The belief, however, in another world would imply also other beliefs.

() Parigraha. Lassen translates this word by “fastus,” Thomson by “avarice,” Burnouf by "cortège.” Telang has “all belongings.” The word means whatever a man may gather round him, as attendants or possessions. The recluse must put away what is external to himself, that his soul may be devoted exclusively to pious meditation.

(8) Buddhiyogam upaśritya “Mentis devotione fretus” (Lassen); “Practise devotion with the faculty of fixed resolution” (Telang); here, as elsewhere, translating buddhi by “resolve." This, I think, is a mistake, buddhi means intellect, intelligence, and also purpose, intention (absicht, vorsatz, Peters. Dict.), but not resolve in the sense of resoluteness. Moreover, the compound form will hardly bear this interpretation. The Hindū commentators, however, support it. Srīdhara speaks of the application of the intellect, but

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