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that has fascinated many noble minds, without the pale of the Christian Church as well as within it. But in India, as in Europe, the attempt to rise above our human nature has resulted only in failure. The Yogin, or devotee, became a mere hypocrite or charlatan, leading an idle life, and supporting himself by a useless show of religious austerities or by more immoral devices. This result seems to have been manifest in our author's time. The true system of yoga had been lost, and must be revived. But the disciple differed from his master in one important point. He saw that the pure abstraction of a religious devotee was not possible for all men, and that it was opposed to the just claims of family and caste. He contended still that mental devotion (buddhiyoga) was the best, but that devotion by work (karmayoga) might also lead to the great blessing of nirrāņa.

But all work must be done without "attachment” (the Sanskrit term sanga having the same double meaning as this word), that is, it must be done simply as duty, without any emotion, with indifference to all attendant circumstances, and especially without any desire for reward (phala, fruit). To do even religious acts in the hope of gaining heaven,' even the heaven of Indra, bound the soul still to the prison of the body in successive births. Its highest destiny, absorption into the Supreme Being, might be gained, or at least promoted, by works, but the necessary condition of such works was their absolute freedom from all selfish hope of gain. If done in this spirit, then action was even laudable, especially such action as was required by the particular caste to which a man might belong. It was the duty, therefore, of his hero, Arjuna, to fight, for he was of the Kshatriya or warrior caste, and this duty is enforced by much ingenious casuistry, by which renunciation (of works: sannyāsa) is reconciled with devotion by work (karmayoga), which is done by renouncing all the "fruit" of works. This kind of renunciation is called tyāga (forsaking). Works done in this spirit of absolute indifference to all external things might lead to the great blessing of nirrāņa; but if done from any desire of gain, they were imperfect, and could only lead to a temporary abode in one of the heavens of the gods, however good or useful they might be relatively. But though works are so far admitted into his system, the highest state below is that of perfect repose, with constancy in meditating on the Supreme; and his highest type of man is the recluse (muni), taking up a solitary resting-place far from the haunts of men, renouncing all the blessings of this world, and even hope itself, holding the mind in check until thought ceases, and thus waiting in pious abstraction for the happy hour when he will be absorbed into the infinite Brahma.

1 The ecclesiastic student will see Guyon, which taught that the incen. a parallel to this doctrine in the tive to a godly life should not be the teaching of the Quietist school, re. hope of heaven, but the pure love of presented by Molinos and Madame God.

The material world was not, however, ignored by our author as an object of speculation. In treating of physics he adopts the system of Kapila, which has been generally adopted or acquiesced in by Hindū writers, though of different schools of thought in other respects. In the Sānkhya system, Prakriti, or primordial matter, is assumed as the source of all material things: it is eternal, both as to the past and the future; uncreated, and having in itself a potentiality of issuing forth and forming all material existences. It is acted upon unconsciously by a desire or purpose to set soul free from all contact with matter, that the former may know no longer the pains of this mortal life, by regaining its primal state of unconscious repose. This primal matter has three constituent elements, called guņas or threads, which are (1.) Sattwa (goodness), which is of a fine and elastic nature; (2.) Rajas (passion), the element of motion, active and restless, of which things animate (except the gods) are chiefly formed; and (3.) Tamas (darkness), the source of inanimate things and of stupidity and delusion. Nature, when undeveloped, is called Avyakta (unmanifested), and Vyakta (manifested) when developed in the manifold forms of the existing world. The nature and excellence of these forms depend on the nature of the guna that prevails in it, and the manner in which each may be modified by the other.

1 For a fuller account of this 858. khya Kārikā, in this series of Orien. tem I must refer my readers to a tal works. translation, with notes, of the Sān.

The first production of Nature is (1.) Buddhi (intellect), which is the first link in the chain of agencies by which the soul becomes cognisant of the external world; (2.) Ahankāra (consciousness), the seat of our sense of being or self-consciousness. From Ahankāra (which corresponds to the “mind-stuff” of Professor Clifford) proceed (3.) the five subtle elements (tanmātra), which underlie (4.) the five gross elements (mahābhūta). The former bear the technical names of sound, tangibleness, odour, visibleness, and taste. The gross elements are ether (ākāśa), connected with the subtle element called sound; air (vāyu), from the element tangibleness; earth, from the element called smell; light or fire, from the element visibility, and water from that of taste. From Ahankāra proceed

the five senses (indriyaboth the faculty and the bodily organ), which are the senses of hearing, touching, smelling, seeing, and tasting; and the five organs of action, the voice, the hands, the feet, and the organs of excretion and generation. A third internal faculty, called manas, is usually placed, in the order of enumeration, after the senses and the bodily organs, from its connection with them. It is the faculty by which the sensations are individually received and formed into concepts of a primary form : these are transmitted to consciousness (Ahankāra), by which they come into a clear, conscious state, as into the light, and then they are borne to intellect (Buddhi), by which they are formed into complete conceptions, which the soul sees as in a mirror, and thus becomes cognisant of an external world. The manas, as the seat of sensibility, is supposed to be also the seat of our passions or emotions; for the soul never acts: it is a pure light, existing in and for itself; it knows nothing of those desires that men have for earthly enjoyments, for these are as purely material as the objects of desire.

These twenty-three products are the whole of the Vyakta, or matter in a manifest, developed form, and, with the opposite natures of Prakriti (primal matter) and Soul (Ātman) form the twenty-five principles of the Sānkhya system. The physical theory of Kapila had an extensive influence on Hindū modes of thought, being found in such different works as the Institutes of Manu, the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad, and the Purāņas. Parts of it were incorporated into other systems, in which Prakriti (Nature) occupies a subordinate position.

In the Sānkhya system the soul is invested with a linga or subtle body,1 formed of the three internal organs, Intellect (buddhi), Consciousness (ahankāra), and the Manas or receptive faculty and seat of desires, with the five subtle elements. This is peculiar to each soul, and forms the distinct disposition (bhāra), the separate nature of each individual. It accompanies the soul in its successive transmigrations to other bodies until a final separation from matter has been obtained; (by knowledge, according to Kapila; by pious meditation, according to Patanjali); and then the linga is absorbed for ever in the primal matter (Prakriti) from which it sprung;2 the only source of existing things, according to the Sānkhya school.

Another part, and one that is obscure, in this system, is


1 Sometimes this subtle body is ject not unlike that of the Sānkhya called the linga-śarira (linga-body), school. “It does not appear imand at other times the linga and probable to ine that some of the the linga-karira are distinguished; more refined machinery of thought but this, I think, is a late refine- may adhere, even in another state,

In the Atmā-bodha (soul to the sentient principle ; for though knowledge) the soul is said to be the organs of gross sensation, the invested in five cases or sheaths nerves and the brain, are destroyed (koša). The three interior cases by death, yet something of the more which are (1.) Vijnina-maya (mere etherial nature, which I have supIntellection), (2.) Mano-maya (mere posed, may be less destructible. Manas), and (3.) Prāņa-maya (only And, I sometimes imagine, that breath or the vital airs), form the many of those powers, which have subtle body.

been called instinctive, belong to 2 The linga is referred to in c. the more refined clothing of the xv. 7, 8. That which the soul takes spirit : conscience, indeed, seems to with iton leaving a gross body is this have some undefined source, and permanent subtle body; not, as Mr. may bear relation to a former state Thomson asserts, by the soul's con- of being” (Last Days of a Philo. necting the senses with itself, that it sopher, p. 215). Here there is not may know: the reference is not to the only the assumption of a linga, but soul's knowledge of matter, but to its also a suggestion that it may be 8xqua or vehicle. This idea of a sub- affected by the events of a former tle body is not peculiar to Kapila. St. life, as Kapila taught. (See the Paulspeaks of a “spiritual body,"and translation of the Sānkhya Kārikā Sir H. Davy has a theory on this sub- in this series, p. 89.)

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