Imágenes de páginas

means effort, enterprise; and the character here denoted is the man who rejects all enterprise, because it is opposed to that absolute repose which is the Hindū ideal of excellence. Mr. Thomson has mistaken the meaning of the passage. He translates the word by “free from any interest in his undertakings.” It is the undertakings themselves that he renounces. Srīdhara's gloss is "to renounce active labour” (udyama). Telang's translation is “who doth renounce all acts for fruit;" but there is no limit in the text.

(9) Dharmyāmţitam. Amrita, the immortal, corresponds to the ambrosia of the Greeks. In the later Hindū mythology it denoted chiefly the water of immortality which the gods gained by the churning of the ocean; but it was used to express things offered in sacrifice, chiefly the soma. Here it is used to denote the blessedness of a mental union with Brahma, by which at length nirrāņa is gained.



These (a) bodies, O son of Kuntī! are called kshetra (matter) (b). That which knows it is called by the wise kshetrajna (matter-knowing = Soul).

Know that I am the soul (kshetrajna) in all forms of matter, O son of Bharata ! This knowledge of soul and matter I deem to be knowledge (indeed).

What this matter is, what its qualities, what are its changes and whence it comes, and what that is (soul) and what its greatness (c), hear now briefly from Me.

All this has been sung separately, in many ways by Rishis, in various songs (d), and in well-thought-out verses

of Brahma-sutras (e), that treat of the causes (of things). 5 The gross elements, egoism, intellect, and also the un

manifested (Prakriti or Nature), the ten senses, the one (organ, the manas), and the five objects (or domains) of sense;

Desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, collective form (organised body), thought, resolve, these are briefly described as matter in its modified forms.

1 Here the third part of the poem

3 The Hindū commentators ex. begins, treating, in part, of the phy- plain this word (pritak) as vari. sical theory of the Sankhya system. ously,” referring it to Brahma in his This part of Kapila's teaching has various forms as Vishņu, &c. largely affected the whole course of 8 Because they belong to the Hindū thought or speculation on buddhi and manas of man's com. physical matters, even in schools pound nature, and these are only widely differing from his on other subtle forms of matter. subjects.

Modesty, sincerity, innocence, patience, uprightness, service done to a preceptor, purity, constancy, self-control;

Absence of desire for things of sense and of vanity, perception of the evil of birth, death, old age, sickness, and pain;

Freedom from attachment, absence of affection for son, wife, home, and the rest, and constant equanimity in desired and undesired events;

With constant worship of Me in exclusive devotion, frequenting of lonely places and distaste for the society


of men;

Perseverance in (seeking to gain) the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit (Adhyātman), and perception of the gain that comes from knowledge of the truth : this is called knowledge: all that is contrary to this is ignorance.

I will declare that which must be known, by the knowledge of which immortality is gained; the Supreme Brahma, without beginning, who is called neither sat nor asat ;

Whose hands and feet are everywhere, everywhere his eyes and heads and faces; hearing everywhere, he dwells in the world encompassing all things.

Resplendent in the faculties of all the senses, yet devoid



i See c. viii. 1, supra

that which is not perceived by the 2 Neither sat, thing, reality, but

The earlier philosophic here formal being, in opposition to meanings of sat and asat were lost asat, unformed, primal matter. Śan. in course of time, but the true sense kara, quoted by Telang, gives another was manifest to some who were comexplanation. He says that these paratively modern commentators. words indicate a class, a quality, an Rāghavendra says that sat means action, or a relation, but as none the Vyakta (Manifested) produced of these is possible in the case of as an effect, and asat is the Avyakta Brahma, neither word can be applied (Unmanifested), which is the cause to him. Śridhara explains sat by of it, i.e., Prakriti (Telang). rishaya, object of sense, asat being

of all the senses; unattached (f) and yet sustaining all things; without the modes (of Nature) (9), yet the pos

sessor (enjoyer) of the modes.2 15 He is without and within all beings; motionless and

yet moving; not discerned because of his subtlety; near and yet remote ;

Not distributed in beings, yet constantly distributed in them; he is to be known as the sustainer of all; he devours 3 and he creates.

The light of all things luminous, he is declared to be above (all) darkness. He is knowledge, its object, and its end (h), seated in the hearts of all.

Thus matter, knowledge, and that which must be known, have been briefly set forth. He who worships Me and discerns this (Supreme Spirit) is fitted to become one with Me (i).

Know that Nature and Spirit are both without beginning. Know, too, that variations (of material forms) and

the modes (1) spring from Nature. 20 In the activity of the organs of action (6) Nature 4 is

called the cause: in the sensation of pleasure and pain spirit is called the cause.

For spirit seated in Nature possesses (makes use of) the modes that spring from Nature and the connection of this with modes is the cause of birth in good or evil wombs.5

1 Possessing all that the senses At the end of a kalpa or day of can give, as seeing, &c., but without Brahmā (see c. viii. 16), all existent any bodily conditions.

things are absorbed in Prakriti, and From the dual nature of Brahman are sent forth again into actual for. who, as involving Prakriti in bis mal life at the beginning of another lower nature, possesses the modes kalpa, by the coupmand of Brahmă. or constituent elements of the latter, 4 Prakriti or primordial matter. but in his higher spiritual nature,

$ The action of the modes causes which is truly himself, he has no a new birth and is never absolutely connection with any form of matter. good. The summum bonum or ab

Surveyor, director, supporter, possessor (), the mighty Lord, thus is the Supreme Spirit called; the supreme purusha (male creative power) in this body.

He who knows this creative power (purusha) and Nature with its modes, in whatever state he may be, is never born again.

Some by meditation perceive the soul in themselves by themselves, others by devotion (yoga) in the Sānkhya 2

(system), and others by devotion in works; 25 But others, who know it not, hear of it from others and

worship, and these, too, devoted to the sacred doctrine, pass over death.

When any existence whatever, animate or inanimate, is produced, know, O son of Bharata! that it exists by this union of matter and spirit.

He who sees the Supreme Lord dwelling alike in all beings, the Imperishable in things that perish, sees indeed;

For seeing the Lord as the same, everywhere present, he destroys not himself by himself, and thus he goes to the supreme seat.

But he who sees that works are wrought in every case by Nature (Prakriti), and that therefore the soul is not an

agent, sees indeed. 30

When he sees that the separate natures of things are seated in One and issue from it alone, then he attains to Brahma. sorption into Brahma can only be ship, cannot properly be applied to gained by an absolute freedom from the system of Kapila, for by it know. the influence of the modes by the ledge, i.e., the knowledge of philopractice of devout meditation. sophy, was set far above the ritual

1 In the person of Krishņa, who of the Vedas, and above all religious is identified with Brahma.

practices. 2 The term yoga, devotion or wor.

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