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our tables, and the simpler beverage of nut-brown ale at the tables on our right and left, the steward for the day proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Richmond, for their attention to the interests of the club. Upon which, Mr. Richmond rose and addressed them at some length on the principles of these societies, and he had recourse to the triangle before-mentioned, on whose sides were written, · Faith, Hope, Charity ;' and on cross-bars, · Mutual Support, Unity, Patience,' &c. He commented on these with his usual simplicity and piety, reverting to the early history of the institution, and urging the necessity of keeping those principles steadily in view both in regard to their conduct in the management of the society, and towards each other. He dwelt also on the subject of the perpetuity of clubs, and the necessity of taking the calculation of human life from more recent tables, than those from which it had hitherto been made ; experience having proved that human life is generally longer than bad been supposed. I need not say he made himself understood; but I may add, that he gave the whole discussion such an air of interest, that all were delighted, as well as edified.

6 A few rainutes after Mr. Richmond had resumed his seat, the steward proposed the thanks of the societies to the honorary members, for their countenance and support. When this had passed, Mr. Grimshaw arose on the part of the honorary members. His address contained a strong appeal to their moral principles, and was heard with much interest. After a short interval, the Honourable Lyttleton Powys made a very impressive address. His remarks produced a more than ordinary effect upon the whole assembly. He held in his hand a narrative of a waterman, who had plied upon the river Thames, and by his honest industry had been able not only to educate several of his relatives and settle them in the world, but also to leave considerable pecuniary legacies to some public religious societies. This book he presented to Mrs. Richmond, with a request that she would lend it to the members of the club, to teach them the blessings of patient industry, with the fear of God. He pointed out to them in the waterman's character, his conscientious observance of the Sabbath, in his steady refusal to ply on the river on that day.

“What I said, I must leave you to conjecture. The happy countenances around me—the beautiful effect of the pendant flowers, and the sweet union of 'young men and maidens, old men and children,' filled my mind with so many pleasing ideas, that I assure you I could not continue silent, nor refrain from


contrasting the scenes of wretchedness I had witnessed in the manufacturing districts of the north, with the comfort and tranquillity of Turvey.

I have mentioned to you that I was present at several of these anniversaries, and I could not help observing that they were so managed, as never to present an uninteresting same

Some new incident furnished a pleasing variety. On one occasion, the senior chaplain of St. Helena was present. With a view to inspire contentment amongst the poor, he drew a lively contrast between their comforts and his own privations in that island, He told them, that in consequence of the failure of the regular supplies of provisions, they were frequently reduced to the necessity of eatin" salted beef, as black and hard as the piece of mahogany which he held in his hand. After describing Buonaparte's residence at Longwood, he produced a lock of his hair, which was handed round the tables, and of course examined with eager curiosity.

“Without entering into further detail, I would make this general remark--that so much cheerful sobriety, decorum, and good feeling were every where visible, as to afford a lively illustration of St. Paul's precept, using this world as not abusing it.'

“ At the close of the meeting, Mr. Richmond requested a part of the company to drink tea with him at his own house. His conversation was carried on in the same improving strain, and was calculated to engage the attention of the younger clergy of his neighbourhood, whom he frequently invited on these occasions.

“In closing my letter, one subject of mournful reflection forces itself upon my mind.— These scenes are passed away! our dear friend has indeed gone to a more beauteous abode-a pleasant paradise above ; but the vineyard he has left may, I fear, in some future day, be overgrown with weeds, and the anniversary at Turvey cease to present the same happy fruits to win our admiration, to console and improve our hearts. Yet many

of the members of the Friendly Societies at Turvey are members of Christ. These will follow their beloved pastor, their father and their friend, to that blessed society, whose members are no more sick.'

That you and I may be numbered with them, is the sincere wish of your faithful friend,

" Amos WESTOBY."

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The good effect of these societies were universally felt. The poor learned to enjoy hospitality without excess. An

occasional intercourse between rich and poor, called forth affections and emotions of sympathy and kindness in the one, of respect and gratitude in the other. Instead of the usual scenes at such meetings, a cheerfulness and decorum without constraint prevailed, and a respect for religion gave a sacred charaeter to the whole. It is remarkable, that for twenty anniversaries, though an instance or two might be selected, of persons retiring from the meeting to a public house, not a single instance of intemperance occurred at the school-room. Another good effect of these societies was strikingly exemplified in the improvement of the female character.

Á lamentable departure from propriety previous to marriage, was general, before the establishment of these societies ; afterwards, however, it was a rare occurrence.

As might be expected, his exertions on the week day contributed, in no small degree, to give effect to Mr. Richmond's ministry, and attach people to it. The hurch was numerously attended ; the Sabbath became a hallowed day, and its approach was anticipated with lively expectation. The gospel was preached with fidelity, and heard with deep and solemn interest. Many were awakened from a state of insensibility and thoughtlessness, to a just estimation of the truths which they heard from their beloved pastor. Instances were not infrequent of sound and solid conversion ; and even those who received little spiritual benefit, learned to treat religion with respect, and began to exhibit a decency of deportment. Vice did not lift up the head with its wonted effrontery, nor was sin committed with the same fearless unconcern, and disregard to its consequences,

Another circumstance in the ministry of Mr. Richmond deserves the particular attention of the reader, we mean the examination of candidates for the communion. It has often been objected to the Church of Englang, that her ministers admit to the Lord's Supper indiscriminately, and without due regard to the principles and character of the communicants. The charge cannot apply to a consistent minister of the Established Church. He is empowered, nay required, by the instructions of that church, to put in force her discipline--to examine, to reject, or admit at his own discretion; subject, indeed, as it ought to be, to the approval of his superior. *

* It has been supposed that a clergyman exposes himself to a civil action for defamation, by refusing the sacrament to the most profligate offender. This is a mistake. He must, indeed, render his reasons for rejection, to the bishop, through the churchwardens ; but he is not liable to a civil action, except ho publicly assigns his reasons for refusal. He ought to pass by the rejected person at the time of the sacrament, or warn him only in private. The decision of the clergyman may, indeed, be reversed by his ecclesiastical superior; but he will not expose himself to any process in a civil court.

Mr. Richmond, as a faithful son of the church, and a no less faithful minister of the Gospel, endeavoured to carry into effect the requirements of the Rubric, and the directions of the Holy Scriptures : 1 Cor. v. 7, &c; xi. 28. The person proposing himself for the communion was examined, and a year of probation was recommended to him for the trial of his sincerity, and the manifestation of it by a consistent and virtuous conversation. Perhaps there were few communions which exhibited a more satisfactory piety; and the attendants at the sacrament were, for the most part, the fruits of his own ministry, and the dearest objects of his heart: he was regarded by them as a father; they consulted him on all occasions, and received advice and sympathy in all their affairs, both temporal and spiritual. At once respected and beloved by “the children which God had given him,” he, in return, watched over them with anxiety, prayed for them with earnestness, instructed them with diligence, ruled them with mildness, and regarded them with the affection of an apostle : " for now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord.” -1 Thess. iii. 8.

While Mr. Richmond was thus fulfilling the duties of an active and laborious parish priest, he commenced a work, which justly entitles him to the gratitude of present and succeeding generations. We allude to the “ Fathers of the English Church,” a publication containing copious and impartial selections from the writings of our Reformers, and comprising a valuable mass of theological knowledge, illustrative of the doctrines of the Reformation. Nothing of the kind had ever been attempted, and, perhaps, few modern divines possessed the requisite means of information.

The circumstance to which Mr. Richmond was indebted for his superiority on this subject, is singular, and deserves insertion. While he resided in the Isle of Wight, and shortly after his perusal of “ Wilberforce's Practical View,” which had effected so striking a change in his own sentiments and character, a grocer at Newport sent him some trifling article wrapped up in a leaf of Bishop Jewell's Apology. His attention was directed to the wrapper by one of his family, who jocosely remarked, b6 this looks as if it would suit you, Legh.” He read the leaf, and instantly set off for Newport, to inquire after the remaining pages. The grocer, smiling at the anxiety of his clerical customer, replied, “yes, Sir, here they are, and I have a whole hogshead of these worthies; they are much at your service, for two-pence a pound.” The treasure was speedily and joyfully secured; and to this incident, trivial as it may appear, Mr. Richmond owed his extensive and profound acquaintance with the authors of the Reformation.

It is, indeed, a humiliating consideration, that works like these should lose the veneration of posterity, and be treated with the contempt due only to the meanest productions of the day. It was an honour reserved for Mr. Richmond, to draw from obscurity the writings of those eminent men, who had shaken empires by their discussions, overthrown systems which centuries had struggled to uphold, and, sealing their testimony with their blood, bequeathed a sacred legacy of pure doctrine to the Protestant church.

At the urgent and repeated entreaties of several clerical friends, Mr. Richmond was induced to engage in this important undertaking. A prospectus of his plan was laid before the public in the year 1806 ; and shortly after he commenced the publication of the work in numbers, and ultimately completed it in eight volumes. It is impossible to contemplate the execution of so laborious a task, and not to assign to the Editor the praise of unwearied diligence, discriminating judgment, and acknowledged impartiality. The substance of the writings of Tindal, Ridley, Latimer, Cranmer, Hooper, Bradford, Jewell, and others, was thus rendered accessible to the theological student, at a time when the spirit of controversy was gone forth, and when a standard of unquestionable authority, and free from the bias of modern prejudices, became a desideratum of the very first importa

Since the above period, a considerable change of sentiment has taken place among us; and we have no hesitation in ascribing much of that perceptible return to the doctrines of the Reformation, which characterizes the present state of our Church, to the influence of this publication. It has been repeatedly referred to, and largely quoted in the various subjects of popular discussion; and if sound doctrine be to the soul what nutritious food is to the body, and the stream be purest as we approach nearest to its source, it is to the perusal of the writings of the Reformers, and of their immediate successors, next to that of the Bible, that we are to look, under the divine blessing, for the revival of national piety and religion.*


* “The Fathers of the English Church” are now no longer to be obtained in complete sets ; but some of the separate volumes, which are distinct, and wholly independent in their contents, may be purchased, by application to the publishers, Messrs. Hatchard, Piccadilly; and Seely, Fleet Street, London.

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