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And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in congress,


approve of and to authorise us to ratify the said
articles of confederation and perpetual union: KNOW YE, That
we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and au-
thority to us given for that purpose, do, by these presents, in the
name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and en-
tirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of
eonfederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the mat-
ters and things therein contained; and we do further solemnly
plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that
they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in
congress assembled, on all questions which, by the said confede-
ration, are submitted to them; and that the articles thereof sha!!
he inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent;
and that the union shall be perpetual.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our bands, in con-

gress. Done át Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsyl-
vania, the ninth day of July, in the year of our Lord
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in

the third year of the independence of America. On the part and behalf of the State of New-Hampshire. Josiah Bartlett,

John Wentworth,jr. Aug. 8, 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
John Hancock,

Francis Dana,
Sainuel Adams,

James Lovell,
Elbridge Gerry,

Samuel Holten.
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and Providenée

William Elery,

John Collins. Henry Marchant,

On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut. Roger Sherman,

Titus Hosmer, Samuel Huntington,

Andrew Adams. Oliver Wolcott,

On the part and behalf of the State of New York. Jas, Duane,

Wm. Duer,
Fra. Lewis,

Gouv. Morris.
On the part and in behalf of the State of New Jersey.
Jno. Witherspoon,

Nath. Scudder, Nov. 26, 1778
On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania.
Robt. Morris,

William Clingan, Daniel Roberdeau,

Joseph Reed, 22d July, 1778 Jona. Bayard Smith,

On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware. Thos. M'Kean, Feb. 13, 1779, Nicholas Van Dyke. John Dickinson, May 5th, 1779,

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On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland. Fohn Hanson, March 1, 1781, Daniel Carrol, do.

On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia. Richard Henry Lee,

Jno. Harvie, John Banister,

Francis Lightfoot Lee.
Thomas Adams,

On the part and behalf of the State of North Carolina..
John Penn, July 21st, 1778, Jno. Williams.
Corns. Harnett,

On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina.
Henry Laurens,

Richard Hutson, William Henry Drayton,

Thos. Heyward, jun. Jno. Mathews,

On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia. Jno. Walton, 24th July, 1778, Edwd. Langworthy. Edwd. Telfair,

[Note.--From the circumstance of delegates from the same state having signed the articles of confederation at different times, as appears by the dates, it is probable they affixed their names as they happened to be present in congress, after they had been authorised by their constituents.]


We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America,


SECTION 1. 1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

SECTION 2. 1. The house of representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year, by the people of the several states; and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative, who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be m inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

8. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not, taxed, three fifths of all other persors. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The nuinber of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall bave at least one representative: and until such enumeration shall he made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three Massachusetts eight; Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one; Connecticut five; New-York six ; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania éight; Delaware one; Maryland six; Virginia ten; NorthCarolina five;. South-Carolina five; and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

SECTION 3. 1. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first elections, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class, shall he vacated at the expiration of the second year. of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when be shall exercise the office of president of the United States.

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6. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend furn ther than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

SECTION 4. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state, by the legislature thereof; but the congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

SECTION 5. 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications, of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and nay be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

9. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly bebaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting,

SECTION 6. 1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arresty during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech


or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house, during his continuance in office.

SECTION 7. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every bill, which shall have passed the house of represen-. tatives and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses, shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respec.. tively. If

any bill shall not be returned, by the president, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary, (except on a question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

SECTION 8. . The congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States: 8. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the

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