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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

А

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXVIII

VETCH to ZYMOTIC DISEASES

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1911

7 F 3

FOGG ART MUSEUM
HARVARD UNIVERSITY

RFA SO,23(23)

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. .

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXVIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. D. Mo.

A. E. S.

A. F. B.

A. F. B.*

ALFRED BRADLEY GOUGH, M.A., Ph.D.

Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. English Lector in the Westphalia, Treaty ol.

University of Kiel, 1896-1905.

ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE,

See the biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES.

ANSON DANIEĻ MORSE, M.A., LL.D.

Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst Whig Party.

College, 1877-1908.

ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D. Sc., F.R.S.
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, Weevil (in pari).

5 Wasp (in parl);
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
ALURED FARRER BARKER, M.Sc.

Wool, Worsted and Woolled

Professor of Textile Industries at Bradford Technical College.

Manufactures.

ARCHIBALD FRANK BECKE.

Captain, Royal Field Artillery. Author of Introduction to the History of Tactics, { Waterloo Campaign.

1740-1905; &c.
A. F. HUTCHISON, M.A.

Sometime Rector of the High School, Stirling.
ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A.

Barrister-at-law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. Waynflete, William;
Formerly Assistant-Secretary to the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls

William of Wykeham.
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools al the Reformation; &c.
ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University Walsingham, Sir Francis;
of London. Assistant-Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Wishart, George;
Author of England under the Protector Somersel; Life of Thomas Cranmer; Herry Wolsey, Cardinal.

VIII.; &c.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.
See the biographical article: CLERKE, AGNES M.

Vulture; Wagtall; Warbler;

Waxwing; Weaver-bird;
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Wheatear; Whitethroat;
See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

Wigeon; Woodcock;
Woodpecker; Wren;

Wryneck; Zosterops.
ARTHUR PHILEMON COLEMAN, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.

Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Bureau of Mines, { Yukon Territory.

Toronto, 1893-1910. Author of Reporis of the Bureau of Mines of Ontario.
ARTHUR SYMONS.

Villiers de l'Isle-Adam,

See the biographical article: Symons, ARTHUR.

Comte de.

ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B.

Formerly Assistant-Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of

Ornament in European Silks ; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian Weaving: Archaeology and Art.

Textiles in the Victoria and Albert Museum; &c.

ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford | Weber's Law;

Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Wolf, Christian (in pas

Author of Man's Ploce in ihe Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.

ALOYS VON ORELLI.

Formerly Professor of Law in the University of Zürich. Author of Das Staatsrecht Veto.

der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft.

"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

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Formerly Scholar of St. John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900, { widukind; Witan.

A. W. H.

ARTHUR William HOLLAND.

A. W. Hu.

C. H. T.*

C. K. W.

Rev. ARTHUR WOLLASTON HUTTON.

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formerly Librarian of the National
Libera! Club, Author of Life of Cardinal Alanning. Editor of Newman's Lives of the Wiseman, Cardinal.

English Saints; &c.

ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws Waste.

of England.

BENJAMIN ELI SMITH, A.M.

Editor of the Century Dictionary. Formerly Instructor in Mathematics at Amherst
College, Mass., and in Psychology at the Johns Hopkins University, Balumore,

Whitney, William Dwight.
Editor of the Century Cyclopaedia of Names; Century Allas; &c.

B. HECKSTALL-SMITH.

Associate of the Institute of Naval Architects. Secretary of the International Yachting.

Yacht Racing Union; Secretary of the Yacht Racing Association. Yachting

Editor of The Field.

SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College,

Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Yue-chi.

Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German

East Africa, 1900-1904.

CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, Ist City of London (Royal Wilderness: Grant's Campaigth

Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.

CHARLES FRANCIS KEARY, M.A.

Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Vikings in Western Christendom; Viking.

I

Norway and the Norwegians; &c.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D.

s Victor III. and IV. (Popes);
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member
of the American Historical Association.

Visconti (Family).
CRAWFORD HOWELL Toy, A.M., LL.D.

Wisdom, Book of;.
See the biographical article: Tox, CRAWFORD HOWELL.

( Wisdom Literature.
CHARLES KINGSLEY WEBSTER, M.A.

Vienna, Congress of.

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Whewell Scholar, 1907.

Warwick, Richard Beau-

champ, Earl of;

Warwick, Richard Neville,

CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc., F.S.A.

Earl of;

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor

of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London.

Whittington, Richard;

Worcester, John Tiptoft,

Earl of;

York, Richard, Duke of.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of
Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography: Zemarchus.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
CHARLES WALKER ROBINSON, C.B., D.C.L.

Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, Vitoria.
1890-1892. Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895-

1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c.

DAVID BINNING MONRO, M.A., LITT.D.

See the biographical article: MONRO, DAVID BINNING.

Woll, Friedrich August.

Victoria, Tommasso L. da;
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The

Wagner: Biography (in part)

Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

and Critical Appreciation;

Weber: Critical Appreciation.
DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow
of the British Academy: Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903;

Xanthus;
Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, Zeitun,

1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
David HANNAY.

| Villeneuve;
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal
Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

Zumalacárregui.

DUKINFIELD HENRY Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.

Professor of Botany. Royal College of Science, London. 1885-1892. Formerly

President of the Royal Microscopical Society and of the Linnean Sociсty. Author

Williamson, William Crawford,

of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil Botany; &c.
David RANDALL-MAÇIVER, M.A., D.Sc.

Curator of Egyptian Department, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester {Zimbabwe.
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia; &c.

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