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visitor has the following remarks regarding enclosures. “We seldom meet with enclosures; either because, being a corn country, they would be injured as like as may be by birds which harbour in the hedges; or, being without those long and kind leases the tenants of England have, they are not encouraged by their lords in that and some of their improvements; or that there is want of industry in this and like cases : so it is that their fields are open and without fences, unless here and there they raise out of the road some little continued heaps of stone in the nature of a wall to secure their crops from the incursions of travellers."-Early Travellers, etc., p. 267.

30. The Monastery, chap. i. 31. Scot. Before 1700, p. 115.

32. 10.

33. Ib., p. 220.
34. Ib., p. 125
35. Early Travellers, etc., p. 93.
36. Ib., p. 67.

37. Jean de Beaugué, Histoire de la Guerre d'Écosse pendant les Campagnes 1548-9 (Mait. Club), p. 23.

38. Early Travellers, etc., p. 82. 39. Scot. Before 1700, p. 122.

40. 16.

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41. Pitscottie, book xxi. chap. xxxi.
42. Early Travellers, etc., p. 17.
43. Ib., p. 21.
44. Scot. Before 1700, p. 116.

45. Ib., p. 68. Bishop Leslie also says that Dumfries was “famous in fyne claith."

46. Ib., p. 118.
47. Scot. Before 1700, p. 296.
48. Ib., p. 221.
49. Early Travellers, etc., p. 23.
50. Ib., p. 156.
51. Ib., p. 21.
52. Ib., p. 238.

53. Pitscottie, Chronicles of Scotland, I. 380 (Scot. Text. Soc.).

54. Fynes Moryson, Tb., pp. 85, 86. 55. Ib., p. 169.

56. Scot. Before 1700, p. 135.
57. Ib., p. 298.
58. Ib., p. 134.
59. Ib., p. 230.
60. Ib., p. 134.
61. Reg. Priv. Coun., I. 471.
62. Ib., II. 500.

63. Early Travellers, etc., p. 268. The same observer, Thomas Morer, under date 1689, it should be added, makes the following remark regarding the habits of the Highlanders : "Once or twice a year, great numbers of 'em get together and make a descent into the Low-lands, where they plunder the inhabitants, and so return back and disperse themselves. And this they are apt to do in the profoundest peace, it being only natural to 'em to delight in rapine, but they do it on a kind of principle, and in conformity to the prejudice they continually bare to the Lowlanders whom they generally take for so many enemies.”—Ib., p. 271.

64. Donald Monro's Description of the Western Isles of Scotland will be found in Scotland Before 1700, pp. 238-272.

65. “It has been computed that in the reign of Elizabeth onethird of England was waste.”—Elton, Origins of English History (Lond., 1890), p. 219.

66. Early Travellers, etc., p. 267.
67. Ib., p. 97.

68. On the other hand, De Ayala, the agent of Ferdinand and Isabella at the court of James IV., says that in Scotland “are all kinds of garden fruits to be found which a cold country can produce."--Ib., p. 44. But, as will afterwards be seen, De Ayala's account of Scotland must be taken with considerable reserves.

69. Ib., p. 30.

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NOTES TO CHAPTER II

1. Lupold von Wedel's account of his travels in Scotland will be found in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (New Series), Vol. IX., 1895, pp. 223-270.

2. "If the English do burn our houses, what consequence is it to us? We can rebuild them cheap enough, for we only require three days to do so, provided we have five or six poles and boughs to cover them." Johnes' translation - Early Travellers, etc., p. 10.

3. Ib., p. 26.

4. Our Journey into Scotland, by C. Lowther, R. Fallow, and Peter Manson (Edin., 1894), p. 12.

5. Early Travellers, etc., p. 275.

6. “And now let's advance to our country cottage, since compelled by the extremity of rain and encreasing waters. which place [apparently Biggar), when we arrived, like men in amaze, we stood gazing at one another, because to see the sheep grazing on the tops of those houses, where there was hardly grass enough to graze a goose in. By this you may conclude their buildings but low, and I'm sure their doors and entrances were so strait that they exercised our strength beyond our art.”— Early Travellers, etc., p. 186. The writer is the fantastic Cromwellian trooper, Richard Franck, who made a fishing excursion through Scotland in 1656.

Sir Arthur Mitchell thus describes certain houses which he saw in Lewis. “The walls are generally not more than six feet in height; and on the tops of them, round the roof, there is often a footpath, on which children, sheep, fowls, and dogs may be constantly seen. In one case the public footpath to a neighbouring township led me over the end of one of these houses, provision being made for getting up and down by stones or steps projecting from the wall." - The Past in the Present (Edin., 1880), p. 53.

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7. Harrison, Description of England, chap. ix.
8. Early Travellers, etc., pp. 73, 74, 78.

9. La Bruyère, Les Caractères ou Les Meurs de ce Siècle, chap. xi., De l'Homme.

10. Hist. of Greater Britain (Scot. Hist. Soc.), p. 29.

11. Entries like the following constantly occur in the Records of the burghs.—1572. “Ordanis the haill inhabitantis of the toune of Peblis to convene at sevin houris at morne, ane of euerilk hous, with barrowis and mandes (baskets), to beir stanis with to the wall rownd about to be heichtit with dry stane, begynnand at the eist port, ilk persone under the pane of ane unlaw." - Charters and Documents relating to the Burgh of Peebles, etc. (Scot. Burgh Rec. Soc.), p. 347.

12. “Ordanis all that lepis the wall to be punist be warding of thair bodyis in irnes xxiij houris the first falt; the secund falt, banissing of the toune; the third falt deid, etc."-16., p. 347.

13. Early Travellers, etc., p. 47.

14. Cuperent tam egregie Scotorum reges quam mediocres Nurembergae cives habitare.-Æn. Sylvius apud Schmidt, Hist. des Allemands, t. v. p. 510.

15. Early Travellers, etc., p. 139.
16. Ib., p. 279.
17. Acts of Parl. of Scot., IX. 489.
18. Ib., II. 12.
19. Early Travellers, etc., p. 139.

20. John Ray, the Naturalist, who visited Scotland about 1662, says: "In the best Scottish houses, even in the king's palaces, the windows are not glazed throughout, but the upper part only; the lower have two wooden shuts or folds to open at pleasure, and admit the fresh air.”—Ib., p. 231.

21. Ib., p. 12.

22. Ib., p. 10. The best reading of Froissart gives 400, and not 4,000 as the number. Cf. Buchon's Edit., II. 314; Bourchier's Edit. II. p. 7.

23. Charters and Documents relating to the City of Edinburgh, etc. (1143-1540), p. 162.

24. Sir William Brereton.-Early Travellers, etc., p. 139.
25. Taylor, the Water-Poet.-Ib., p. 110.
26. Ib., p. 159.
27. Jorevin de Rocheford.-16., p. 223-

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28. Early Travellers, etc., 139.

29. Records of the Burgh of Edinburgh (1557-1571), p. 42; “In presence of the provest, baillies and counsale foirsaid, Michel Bre, Frencheman, calsay makar, bindis and obleissis him that incontinent heirefter he, togidder with his sone and samony seruandis as he may get sall enter to the making and mending of the tounis calsayis, and begin at sic place as pleissis thame to appoint him, continuallie to remane and laubour thairat . . . quhill the haill calsayis of the toun be compleitlie endit and mendit, etc."

- 1b., p. 99.

30. Early Travellers, etc., pp. 82-3.
31. Ib., p. 110.
32. Ib., p. 140.

33. 10.

34. Ib., p. 280.
35. Ib., pp. 151-2.
36. Scot. Before 1700, p. 15.
37. Ib., p. 137.

38. E. Bain, Merchant and Craft Guilds, A History of the Aberdeen Incorporated Trades (Aberd., 1877), p. 76.

39. A. Macgeorge, Old Glasgow, the Place and the People (3rd Edit., Glasgow, 1888), p. 144. In Stirling in 1550, there were 86, 98, 98, and 103 adults in its four divisions, respectively, giving a total of 385.Burgh Records of Stirling (1519-1666), P. 59.

40. Burgh Records of Edin. (1557-1571), p. 3.
41. Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, I. p. cvii.

42. Ib., II. p. lxx. The Burghs contributed ths for the ransom of James I.-Exchequer Rolls, IV. p. cxxx.

43. Acts of Parl. of Scot., III. 108, 437. 44. Du Cange, s. v. Trinoda Necessitas.

45. Acts of Parl. of Scot., IV. 536; VII. 574.-These Acts belong to a later period than the reign of Mary, but they only exact an ancient obligation.

46. Early Travellers, etc., p. 264. 47. Reg. Priv. Coun., XII. 496. 48. Ib., X. 304.

49. The building of this bridge has been attributed to Robert I. as well as to Bishop Cheyne.

50. The bridge over the Nith at Dumfries, which was long

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