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development of constitutional liberty, in the clashing of political ideals, that its people attained to the full stature of a nation. According to a great French historian, it was in the contact of France with the Italy of the Renaissance that she first became a self-conscious nation, and deliberately chose the line of development she was thenceforth to follow. But whatever the mode and means by which the transformation is wrought, they must inevitably stamp

the new-born nation with characteristics and tendencies which mark it off from every other. The respective histories of England, Scotland, and France during the last three centuries are a prolonged illustration of the different conditions under which they came to birth as nations. It was in the paroxysm produced by the rejection of one religion and the adoption of another that Scotland emerged into national life, and, whatever may be the modifying influences of time, she can never wholly lose the marks of her origin.

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1. This is the expression used in one of Mary's own proclamations. “The Quenis Majestie . . . calling to mynd quhat greit alterationis and strange accidentis hes fra tyme to tyme occurit [in] hir Majesties regnne.”— Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, I. 514.

2. “I must now strike into another road and proceed to the remaining part of the Brigantes who settld beyond the mountains towards the Western Ocean. And, first, of those of Lancashire, whom I approach with a kind of dread: may it forbode no ill! But I fear I shall be so far from satisfying the Reader, that I shall not satisfy myself. For after I had survey'd the far greater part of the country, I found very few discoveries to my mind; the ancient names seem'd every where to be so much obscur'd and destroy'd by age. However, that I may not seem wanting to this country, I will run the hazard of the attempt; hoping that the Divine assistance, which hath favoured me in the rest, will not fail me in this.”—Camden, Britannia (Translated into English: London: James and John Knapton), II. 962.

3. Scott, Fasti.

4. These descriptions are brought together in Scotland Before 1700 from Contemporary Documents (David Douglas, 1893).

5. Most of the descriptions of Scotland by foreign visitors will be found in Early Travellers in Scotland (David Douglas, 1891).

6. On this subject of. Professor James Geikie's remarks in his Paper On the Buried Forts of Scotland, etc. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin., vol. xxiv. p. 363, etc.)

7. Acts of Parl. of Scotland, I. 652, 706.

8. “Die lunae in crastino Paschae pius Dux Lancastriae Johannes intravit in Scotiam in magna potentia persequens Scotos, et plures villulas et domos succendit igni, silvasque succidit. Fertur enim posse ibidem audiri sonitus simul quater viginti millium securium succidentium ligna silvarum, et in pabulum ignis ligna interea dederunt; et inaudita mala de talibus perpetraverunt."-Knighton, Chronica de Rebus Angliae, (Twysden), p. 2676.

9. Early Travellers, etc., p. 26.

10. Ib., p. 85. Moryson adds that “the Gentlemens dwellings were shaddowed with some little Groves, pleasant to the view" (p. 86).

11. Acts of Parl. of Scotland, II. 343.
12. Ib., p. 544.
13. Early Travellers, etc., p. 98.
14. Blaeu's Atlas, p. 85.
15. Ib., pp. 43-4.

16. Ib., p. 56. See Note on the Vestiges of the Forest of Cree in Galloway, by (Sir] Arthur Mitchell (Proc. of Soc. of Antiq. of Scot., V. 20, etc.).

17. Scotland Before 1700, p. II.

18. Yet it was also found necessary to legislate for the preservation of timber in the Highlands. In the P. C. Register, under date 1564, we have the following interesting entry: “Forsamekill as the Quenis Majestie, undirstanding how the woddis and growand tymber within this realme are swa decayit be the ithand and continewall cutting and selling thairof, as alswa be the peling of the bark of the standand treis, quhilkis thairefter schortlie consumis and na commoditie cummis of the samyn, that apperandlie the haill polecie in that part is lyke to pereis, without sum substantious order and remedie be provydit. For avoyding quhairof, hir Majestie ordanis lettres to be direct to the Shereffis of Invernes, Narne, Elgin, Fores, Banff, and Abirdene, the Provestis and Bailleis of all burrowis within the saidis sherefdomes, and to officiaris of hir Majesteis shereffis in that part, chargeing thame to pass to the mercat croces of the heid burrowis of the said schyris, and all utheris places neidfull, and thair, be oppin proclamatioun in hir Hienes name and autorite, command and charge all and sundry hir lieges dwelland within the said boundis, and utheris quhatsumevir, that nane of thame tak upoun hand to by or sell any maner of tymer, greit or small, bot oppin and plane mercattis at the fre burrowis abone writtin," etc.-P. C. R., I. 279.

19. Scotland Before 1700, etc., p. 130. Gilbert Blackhal, a

Roman Catholic priest, who made a surreptitious journey through Scotland in 1643, speaks of the Tor Wood as consisting of "some scattered oackes, dying for antiquity."-16., p. 309.

20. Historical Notes on Scottish Forestry, with some account of the Woods of Inverness-shire, Ancient and Modern, by D. Nairne.

21. William Mackay, Urquhart and Cromarty (Inverness, 1893), pp. 448-9.

22. Ivison Macadam, Notes on the Ancient Iron Industry of Scotland (Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., Vol. IX. (New Series), pp. 89 et seq.). The Estates did not at first approve of the use of timber in the smelting of iron. An Act of 1609 runs as follows: "Forsamekle as it hes pleasit god to discover certane vaynes of ritche mettall within this kingdome, as alswa certane wodis in the heylandis, wlkis (whilkis) wodis, by reasoun of the savageness of the inhabitantis thairabout, wer ather vnknawin or at the leist vnproffitable and vnused, and now the estaitis presentlie conveyned, being informit that some personnis vpoun advantage of the present generall obedience in those partis wald erect yrne milnis in the same pairtis to the utter waisting and consumeing of the saidis wodis, wlkis mycht be reserved for mony bettir vseis and upoun moir choice and proffitable mettaillis for the honnor, benefite, and estimatioun of the kingdome, thairfore the estaitis presentlie conveyned statutis and ordanis, and thairwith commandis, chairgis and inhibitis all and sindrie hir majesteis leigis and subiectis, that nane of thame presome nor tak vpoun hand to worrk and mak ony Irne with wod or tymmer vndir the pane of confiscatioun of the haill yrne that salbe maid with the said tymmer to hir maiesteis vse.”-Acts of Parl. of Scot., IV. 408.

23. Reg. of Priv. Coun., II., 500-1.

24. Early Travellers, etc. p. 267. The writer was Thomas Morer, who describes himself as “minister of St Ann's within Aldersgate," and "chaplain to a Scotch regiment." It was in this latter capacity that he visited Scotland in 1689.

25. Acts of Parl. of Scot., II. 51. It was not till the eighteenth century that enclosures became general throughout England.

26. John Major, A History of Greater Britain, etc., translated for the Scot. Hist. Soc., by Archibald Constable, pp. 30-1.

27. Fitzherbert, Boke of Surveyinge, f. 59. 28. Pp. 98, 287. 29. P. xlix. Writing of Scotland in 1689, an English

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