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46 the heavens and the earth, he was only employed as an in- strument in the hands of God his Father.” (Page 83.) But whether Mr. Yates' is a believer in the existence of Christ before all worlds, and his being their instrumental creator, or not, I am not so much in the secret as to inform the curious inquirer,-although I strongly suspect the negative to be the truth.
Mr. Yates's critical strictures on the texts in question relate almost entirely to the proper meaning of the Greek prepositions AIA and 'TIIO. This, therefore, it becomes especially necessary to investigate. Having quoted John i. 3, 10: Col. i. 16: Heb. i. 2: 66 These
passages, I have now quoted them “ from the common translation of the New Testament, leave it “ undecided, whether Christ created all things by his own “ 'underived and independent authority, or merely as an in6 strument directed by the Supreme Being. In the Greek “ original, there is no such ambiguity. The preposition “ AIA, in these passages translated by, does not signify by
any one as an original cause, (for this sense is expressed by “ a different preposition, 'Y110) but it denotes THROUGH ANY 66 THING AS AN INSTRUMENT. For the sake of illustration, I 6 shall take the first example of the occurrence of Ara in the 66 New Testament: Matth. i. 22. Now all this was done, 56 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by 66 the prophet,' or, more accurately, which was spoken by " the Lord through the prophet.' In the first place, the pre“ position ‘rno, BY, points out the Lord as the original au6 thor of the communication; and in the second place, the “ preposition ala, THROUGH, represents the prophet as the “ medium, through whom this communication was conveyed “ to mankind. The same distinction is accurately observed 6 in all cases (and they are very numerous) in which the New “ Testament writers produce quotations from the prophets of “ the Old. They never introduce a prophecy by saying, that “ it was attered THROUGH the Lord, (dia Tou Kugiou) and they
very seldom, if ever, say, that it was delivered by the pro“phet (190 TOU #gopurou); but through the prophet, and by the 66 Lord.
“ The preposition AIA, followed either by a genitive or 66 an accusative case, occurs in the New Testament about 6 630 times. It is used to denote the efficient cause of the “ production of an effect, (of course governing, in these in“ stances, the genitive) about 290 times. I have examined “ all the passages where it is found. I have observed, that “ its general application, when used to point out an efficient “ cause, is to represent, not the primary, but the secondary 66 or instrumental cause. This sense of the word seems, in6 deed, to arise naturally from its original acceptation. It
properly signifies motion through a place. Hence it has “ been transferred, by an obvious process, to the way or me“ thod by passing through which any object is attained, or “ the instrument by means of which any end is accomplish6 ed.” (Pages 84, 85.) - After having referred to his favourite authorities, Origen and Eusebius, he proceeds as follows:
“-For these reasons, I think myself authorized to assert, 66 that when a New Testament writer employs' the preposi« tion AIA to point out the cause of any effect, he means “ the instrumental, and refers to some other being, either'ex
pressly mentioned or contemplated, who is considered as 6 the first or original cause. What, then, is the real im“ port of the passages before cited, on the supposition that
they refer to the creation of the material universe? John i. 3. “ All things were made through Christ as an instrument, but by
6 God as their original contriver.!_Ver. 10. • The world was “ made through Christ as a subordinate agent. The passage “ from Colossians has the same import, All things were « created through him;” (τα παντα ΔΙ' αυτού και εις αυτον εκτίστα») " and the passage from Hebrews, By whom He made the “worlds' can only signify, if it relates to the creation of “ the material universe at all, that God made the stars and
planets through the instrumentality of Jesus Christ.' The “ Greek words employed in these passages, cannot bear to 66 be interpreted so as to ascribe to our Lord the creation “ of the material world by his own uncommunicated omni
potence." They directly contradict the notion, that Christ “ stretched out the heavens alone, and made the world by « himself.' They clearly imply, whether they be supposed to (refer to the formation of the earth out of chaos, or to the “ RE-formation of its inhabitants through the influence of the 6 gospel, that Jesus Christ was only an instrument in the " work, and not a principal.”. (Pages 86, 87.).
On these statements, (which I have given at such length, because I would not seem to garblé, or to shrink from them) I observe:. Ist. It is sufficiently well known to every Greek scholar, that AIA with the genitive case, signifies the efficient cause, whether primary or secondary, principal or instrumental." See Hedericus, Schleusner, Parkhurst, Stockius.
2dly. The same is the case with the preposition ‘TTIO. See the same authorities.
3dly. Mr. Yates, in a note, refers to one passage, as the only one presenting much difficulty against the universality of his rule respecting the use of AIA; and, in the close of the note, he hints at the possibility of his opponent's bringing forward perhaps as many as two or three. The critical reader may consult the following passages, if his previous acquaintance with the established use of this preposition in the Greek language does not supersede the necessity of this trouble. Math. xvii. 7: xxvi. 24: Mark xiv. 21: Luke xxii. 22: Acts xii. 9: xix. 26: * Rom. iii. 27: v. 12: vi. 4: xi. 36: +. 1 Cor. i. 9: xii. 8. (compared with ver. 9. where the expression is varied, sv being used, and with ver. 11.) 2 Cor. i. 19: Heb. ii. 3. (where the reader will observe, that AIA and 'TIIO are both used, the former of the Lord, and the latter of his apostles; so that here we have an instance either of AIA being the immediate, or' of 'rro leing the mediate cause) Heb. ii. 10: (a very decisive passage) Heb. vii. 21: xiii. 11; 1 Pet. ii. 14. I am much mistaken if more instances than these eighteen might not be adduced, of ara signifying not the instrumental, but the primary efficient cause.
4thly. It is admitted, that ala is more naturally employed to denote the instrumental cause than 'Y110; and that this is rightly accounted for from the original signification of the former, as given by Mr. Yates. We do not so readily associate with the latter the idea of medium. As Ara, however, frequently signifies the primary cause, so `is 'Yo sometimes used for the secondary. In the following places it is used as to God's speaking by the prophets, Math. ii. 17: üü. 3: xxvii. 35: Mark xiii. 14.
5thly. If, as Mr. Yates alleges, the idea of any thing being done “ by any one as an original cause," and not merely
* The hands might seem at first view to be the instrumental cause. The connexion shows, however, that the phrase “ by hands" means by human agency, which in this case was direct, without subordinate instrumentality.
† Mr. Yates says there is strong evidence of ito being the true reading, and refers for this to Griesbach. Yet the evidence was not such as to induce Griesbach even to mark it as doubtful.
through any thing as an instrument, be properly expressed by ‘rno, (which certainly is the general case) then the miraculous works performed by Jesus, which required, for their accomplishment, the exercise of Divine power, were done by him, not as a mere instrument, but by his own immediate agency. It is this preposition that is used when these works are spoken of as done by him: Luke V. 15. ix. 7. xiii. 17. xxiii. 8. See also Phil. iii. 12.-If 'TIO means the original or primary cause, then Jesus was not the mere instrument or medium of the cures wrought, but their " original author,” effecting them by his own power. Assuming Mr. Yates's style, we might say, these mighty works are not represented as done Al' aurou, THROUGH him, but 'TIT aurov, BY him. Thus Mr. Yates, in fixing the signification of 'ITIO to the primary efficient cause, has forged a weapon against himself.-If he refuses to admit the inference drawn in the present case, he must then admit, that these are additional instances of 'YITO denoting, in opposition to his too unqualified hypothesis, the secondary or instrumental cause.
6thly. As to the critical authority of Origen and Eusebius, we have had enough of it. We have seen Mr. Yates, on a former occasion, parading this authority, and then presuming to dissent from it himself; whence I infer, that, notwithstanding his reiterated eulogy of these fathers-of Origen, “who lived in the " beginningof the third century, whowrote in Greek, than whom 66 none of the ancient fathers was more learned, more hon“ est, or more industrious," and of Eusebius“ the learned, " accurate, and laborious author, to whom, among the an6 cients, the Christian world is chiefly indebted for the testi- monies to the genuineness of the New Testament writings, 66 and who could not possibly be mistaken about the common s meaning of two prepositions which he used daily and hourly