Introduction to Chemical Physics: Designed for the Use of Academies, High Schools, and Colleges

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D. Van Nostrand, 1874 - 550 páginas
 

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Contenido

CHAPTER II
22
TABLE OF CONTEXTS
27
Porous bodies bad conductors
28
52
30
The second mode of diffusion Convection 59 Convection in Liquids
37
Convection in Gases 61 Illustrations of Convection
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation 65 Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Other circumstances affecting the rate of Radiation
45
Radiation takes place from points bencath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth
47
The theory of Radiation
48
Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors
50
The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The absorption of Heat affected by Color 83 Transmission of Radiant Heat
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon the source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensity different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for different substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
Mellonis experiments on diathermancy of Solids 89 The diathermancy of Liquids
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there are differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
Different kinds of IIeat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
Unequal diathermancy of Heat from different sources due to the different kinds of Heat emitted
72
The refrangibility of rays of heat may be altered by re radia tionCalorescence
74
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
The different processes through which Heat may pass in seeking an Equilibrium 76 EXPERIMENTS ON DIFFUSION OF HEAT76 77 78
76
Effects of HeatExpansion 100 Expansion produced by Heat
79
Expansion of Solids proved 102 The expansion of Solids unequal
80
The expansion of Metals 104 The force of Expansion 105 Illustrations of Expansion
82
The force of Contraction equal to that of Expansion
83
Applications in the Arts
85
Injurious effects of Expansion 109 Glass fractured by Expansion
86
Fracture produced by sudden cooling
87
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
Harrisons Compensation Pendulum 113 Other Compensation Pendulums
89
The Compensation Balance
90
The expansion of Liquids 116 The expansion of different Liquids unequal
91
The expansion of the Liquids produced by the condensation the Gases
92
The expansion of Air the cause of the draught of chimneys 121 Exception to the general law of expansion by heatWater at certain temperatures contr...
95
Important effects of this exception
96
Illustrations of this Force in Nature
99
Other substances also expand in Solidifying 127 The Thermometer
100
The Air Thermometer
101
The Differential Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Thermometer
103
Construction of the Thermometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermometric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer 135 Register Thermometers 136 Metallic Thermometers 137 Pyrometers
108
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEATEXPANSION110 111
110
Effects of HeatLiquefaction 138 Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heatmelting point 113 140 Disappearance of a large amount of Heat during Liquefaction
113
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice
114
The amount of Heat thus absorbed shown by experiment
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes 150 Refractory Substances
121
Facility of Liquefaction proportioned to the quantity of Latent Heat required 152 Important results in Nature of the absorption of Heat in Lique fact...
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEATLIQUEFACTION125
125
Vaporization
126
The physical properties of Vapors
127
Absorption of Heat in Ebullition 160 The heat absorbed in Vaporization given out again in Condensa tion
129
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
130
The Boiling point variableinfluenced by atmospheric pressure 163 Wollastons Hypsometer 133 164 Influence of adhesion on the boiling point
133
Solids dissolved in a Liquid elevate its boiling point
134
Elevation of the boiling point indicates increase of pressure
135
The culinary paradoxWater made to boil by the application of Cold
137
The amount of expansion of Liquids in Vaporization especially Water in producing Steam
138
The Condensation of Steam by decrease of Temperature
139
Wollastons Steam Bulb 173 The Steam Engine
140
The two forms of the Steam Engine 142 175 The Condensing and Noncondensing Engine
142
The Steam Engine in its most complete form
143
Latent Heat of the Condensing Engine
145
The Boiler
146
The Boiler is an apparatus for forming and compressing Steam
147
Law of the propagation of pressure through Fluids
149
Mode in which pressure is transmitted from the Boiler to the Cylinder
150
Explosion of Boilers
151
The Boilers of Locomotives
152
The alternating movement of the Piston how produced The Valves
153
Steam may be used expansively 186 The expansive power of Steam increases with its Temperature
155
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water
158
These truths illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantaneous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The elastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The elastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot rise above the elastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density
180
The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Removal of Atmospheric Pressure hastens Evaporation and in creases Cold
183
Cause of the Cold produced by Evaporation 210 The Cryophorus
184
The Pulse Glass 186 212 The cold of Fountains and Earthern water jars
186
Effect of Evaporation on Climate
187
Constitution of Gasesdifference between Vapors and Gases
194
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
The pressure exerted by liquefied gases
207
229
210
Specific Ileat determined by rate of cooling
213
Regnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
The distribution of temperature in the atmosphere explained
226
The Sources of Heat
232
184
234
The mechanical theory of Heat
238
THE SECOND CHEMICAL AGENTLIGHT THE NATURE OF LIGIIT SOURCES REFLECTION REFRACTION SOLAR SPECTRUM SPECTRUM ...
246
The sources of LightSolar Light
247
Electricity a source of Light
248
Exposure to the Suns rays and to Electricity a source of Light
249
The reflection of Light
250
The refraction of Light
251
The double refraction and polarization of Light
252
The compound nature of Solar Light The illuminating rays 277 The number of vibrations required to produce the different col ors o ors of the Solar ...
256
The Chemical rays of the Solar beam
258
The range of the Chemical rays in the Solar SpectrumFluor escence
259
The triple character of Solar Light
260
The spectra produced by Artificial light and colored flames
262
The Solar Spectrum not continuous but crossed by fixed dark linesFraunhofers Lines
263
Spectra produced by the light of the Nebulæ and by Artificial light crossed by bright instead of dark lines
265
Spectrum Analysis
266
The Spectroscope
268
The new metals discovered by Spectrum Analysis
269
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum exactly coincident with
271
152
272
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum explained
275
The Photographic Camera
283
The nature of Electricity
290
Induction of Electricity
296
121
302
122
303
Mode of charging the Leyden Jar
304
Galvanic Electricity
311
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic
317
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before
323
The Galvanic Battery
329
Batteries of Intensity and Batteries of Quantity 830
330
Bunsens Battery
336
155
337
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
The decomposition of Water by the Battery
349
Secondary decomposition
355
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
The induction of Magnetism
372
The successive action of the same current on different vessels
375
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
The most powerful form of Electromagnetsthe Horse Shoe
386
The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet
391
The Atlantic Telegraph Cable
403
Application of Electromagnetism to the production of Motion
409
Electromagnetic Clocks
415
Progress of discovery in Electromagnetism
421
The inductive effect of the Primary current often takes place
427
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
History of the discovery of Voltaelectric Induction
439
History of the discovery of Magnetoelectricity
442
The magnetismof the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec
448
Ruhmkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued
477
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Wildes Magnetoelectric Machine 469 Improvements of 489
489
470 Siemens and Wheatstones Machines
496
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine
502
SVII Animal Electricity
517
The relations subsisting between the three Chemical Forces
523
Heat and Electricity the chief agents used by the Chemist in
529
EXPERIMENTS ON GALVANIC ELECTRICITY ELECTROMAGNETISM
543
This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment 07
7
Chemistry is connected with many processes in the Arts
16
Chemistry explains the nature of Medicines
17
Chemistry explains Respiration
18
Chemistry connected with Agriculture
19
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
20
Chemistry connected with the manufacture of Gas
21
Chemistry explains Combustion
22
18
23

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