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THE

ORIENTAL INTERPRETER

AND

Treasury of East India Knowledge.

A

COMPANION TO "THE HAND-BOOK OF BRITISH INDIA."

BY J. H. STOCQUELER, ESQ.

AUTHOR OF

The Hand-Book of India ;" The Memorials of Afghanistan ;” “ Fifteen Months' Pilgrimage

through Persia, Turkey, Russia, and Germany;" "The Wellington Manual;" đc., &c.

LONDON:

JAMES MADDEN, 8, LEADENHALL STREET;

AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM,

MDCCCXLVIII.

HARVASO COLLEGE LISRARY

STATE OF CHARLE...ALL LANMAN

MARCH 15, 1941

C. WHITING, BEAUFORT HOUSE, STRAND.

PRE FACE.

This is a compilation. It has been suggested by the compiler's daily experience of the almost universal ignorance of Oriental terms, phrases, expressions, places. Every fortnight brings a mail from India, and the intelligence which it imparts is fraught with words which perplex the multitude. The despatches from India--the conversation of Orientalists~the speeches in Parliament, turning upon Eastern affairs—the Oriental novels, travels, and statistical works likewise abound with terms “caviare to the general.” The new arrival in India, ignorant of the language of the country, is puzzled, for some time, to comprehend his countrymen, whose conversation «

wears strange suits,” and even he, who has been for years a sojourner in India is, to the last, unacquainted with the meaning of numerous words which occur in his daily newspaper, the Courts of Law, and the communications of his Mofussil or up-country correspondents.

The following pages impart a knowledge of all the terms in question as far as they have occurred to the communicant during an examination of two or three years, diligently pursued, and an appeal to his recollection of the phrases in common use in India and Persia.

The authorities from whom the “explanations” have been borrowed are numerous. They are mentioned below, as much from a sense of the obligations of justice, as from a desire to protect the publisher from injunctions, or the protests of holders of copyrights. They are:

The compiler's own “Hand Book of British India” (whence are derived the description of domestics, and of one or two places in India); Williamson's “ Vade Mecum ;" Symonds's “Geography and History” (from which the Gazetteer portion has been chiefly borrowed); Colebrooke's “ Hindoo Mythology;" Fraser's “ Kuzzilbash;” Ward's “Hindoos ;” Bellew’s “ Memoirs of a Griffin ;" the “ Dictionnaire Historique;" Ballin's “ Fruits of India ;" Colonel Sleeman's “ Rambles of an Indian Official ;" Heber's “ Journal ;” Mrs. Postan's “ Western India ;" the “ Asiatic Journal ;” the “ Oriental Herald ;" Selkirk's “ Ceylon;" Forbes's “ Eleven Years in Ceylon;" Galloway's “ Law of India ;" Miss Emma Roberts's “ Scenes and Sketches in Hindostan;" Luard's “ Views in India ;" the “Glossary of Revenue Terms ;” the “ Bengal and Agra Guide and Gazetteer ;" the “Encyclopedia Britannica;" “Real Life in India," &c., &c.

In the orthography of the words, pains have been taken to convey Oriental sounds without resorting to accents or arbitrary pronunciations. The reader is only required to bear in mind, that the letter“ A," wherever it may occur, is to be sounded as in the interjection “AH!"

The compiler will be happy to find that, in the preparation of a work which has consumed more time, and involved more labour, than its bulk would lead the reader to imagine, he has supplied a public want, and added a useful mite to the stock of Oriental Literature.

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ORIENTAL

INTERPRETER.

AB

AD

AARON AL RASCHID (commonly imposts, taxes. This term was par

written Haroun al Raschid), the first ticularly used under the Mahratta caliph of the Abassides. His zeal government to distinguish the taxes for the Mahometan religion induced imposed subsequently to the estabhim to carry the Arab conquests lishment of the assal, or original into Spain and the Indies. He was standard rent, in the nature of addia mild and humane prince, and a tions thereto. In many places they great patron of men of letters.

had been consolidated with the assal, ABAD,“ built by.” In the names of and a new standard assumed as the

Indian towns the concluding syllable basis of succeeding imposition. Many usually affords some clue to their were levied on the Zemindars as the past history; thus “abad” signifies price of forbearance, on the part of built by," as Ahmed-abad, a city native governments, from detailed built by Ahmed Shah; Aurung-abad, investigations into their profits, or Hyder-abad, &c.

actual receipts from the lands, accordABBAH, a warm woollen cloak of dust- ing to the hastabood.

colour, sometimes striped black or ACBAR, otherwise called Mahomed brown, and worn by the Arabs of Galladeen, one of the Mogul em

the Persian and Arabian Gulfs. perors, who reigned at Delhi in the ABDAR (literally “ keeper of the latter part of the sixteenth and the

water"), the name given to the do- beginning of the seventeenth cenmestic who used to cool the wines, tury. He was a wise and just sovewater, &c., with saltpetre, before en- reign, and so accessible to all his terprise afforded the residents of Cal- subjects, that it is recorded of him cutta, Madras, and Bombay the de- that he was accustomed to ring a bell, lightful luxury of American ice; and the rope of which was suspended in his services are still called into requi- his chamber, to announce to his sition when the non-timely arrival people that he was prepared to of the ice-ships throws back the receive their petitions and comcitizens upon their old resources. plaints. His name is still revered The Abdar now manages the ice; in Hindostan. but it is only in wealthy establish- ACHEEN is situated at the northments that such a servant is retained, western extremity of the island of as the Khedmutgar and Sirdar bearer Sumatra. This was formerly the between them can manage well principal trading port in that part of enough.

the world, and its sultaun was held in ABKARREE, taxes or duties on the great respect throughout the East.

manufacture and sale in India of spi- It has since greatly declined, and rituous liquors and intoxicating is now a place of no consequence. drugs.

ADAWLUT, justice, equity; a court ABWAB, items of taxation, cesses, of justice in India.

B

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