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PART II. The History of the Five Indian Nations of Ca

nada, from the Time of the Revolution to the Peace of Reswick.

CH A P. I. The State of Affairs in New-York and Canada,

at the Time of the Revolution in Great-Britain.


E left the Five Nations triumphing over

the French in Canada, and they almost reduced to Despair. The Revolution, which happened at this Time in England, seemed to be a favourable Conjunction for the Five Nations; the English Colonies, by the War at that Time declared against France, becoming Parties in their Quarrel : For one will be ready to think, that the Vol. I.



Five Nations being by themselves too powerful for the French, as appears by the preceding Chapter, when these were affifted by the Utawawas, quasoghies, Twihtwies, Chittaghicks, Putewatemies, and all the Western Indian Nations, and when the English stood neuter; now certainly, when not only all these Indian Nations had made Peace with the Five Nations, but the English joined with them in the War, the French would not be able to stand one Campaign

But we fall find what a Turn Affairs took, contrary to all reasonable Expectations, from the general Appearance of Things, and of what Importance a resolute wise Governor is to the well-being of a People, and how prejudicial Divisions and Parties are. For this Reason it will be necessary to take a View of the Publick Affairs in the Province of New-York, and in Canada, at that Time, in order to understand the true Causes of the Alterations, which afterwards happened in Favour of the French

The Revolution occafioned as great Diversions and Parties in the Province of New-York, in Proportion to the Number of People, as it did in Britain, if not greater. The Governor and all the Officers either fled or absconded; the Gentlemen of the King's Council, and some of the most confiderable or richest People, either out of Love, or what they thought Duty, to King James, or rather from an Opinion they had that the Prince of Orange could not fucceed, refused to join in the Declaration the People made in Favour of that Prince, and suffered the Administration to fall into different Hands, who were more zealous for the Protestant Intereft, and who were joined by the far greatest Number of the Inhabitants. After the Revolution was established, they that had appeared fo warmly for it, thought that they deserved best of


the Government, and expected to be continued in the Publick Offices; the others were zealous to recover the Authority they had lost, and used the most persuasive Means with the Governors for that Purpose, while the former trusted to their Meris. This begat great Animosities, which continued many Years. Each Party, as they were at different Times favoured by several Governors, opposed all the Meafures taken by the other, while each of them were by Turns in Credit with the People or the Governor, and sometimes even proleguted each other to Death. The publick Measures were by these Means perpetually Auctuating, and often one Day contradictory to what they were the Day before. The succeeding Governors, finding their private Account in favouring sometimes the one Party, and at other Times the other, kept up the Animofities all King William's Reign, though very much to the publick Prejudige, for each Party was this while so eager in resenting private Injuries, that they intirely neglected the publick Good.

The Constitution of Government in the English Plantations, where the Governors have no Salary, but what they can attain with the Consent of the Assemblies or Representatives of the People, gave Occasion to imprudent Governors to fall upon these Expedients, as they sometimes call them, for getting of Money. And a prevailing Faction, knowing for what Purpose the Governments in America were chiefly desired by the English Gentlemen, used this great Privilege to tempt a Governor to be at the Head of a Party, when he ought to have been the Head of the Government. Indeed News York has had the Misfortune, too frequently, to be under such as could not keep their Passion for Money secret, though none found it so profitable a Government, as they did who followed strict v isti ..F.2

ly ly the true Maxims of governing, without making Money the only Rule of their Actions.

The frequent Changes of Governors were likewise prejudicial to the publick Affairs. Colonel Slaughter, the first Governor after the Revolution, happened to die foon after his Arrival, when steady, as well as resolute Measures, were most necessary. But some think, that the Occasion of all the Misfortunes lay in the Want of Care in the Choice of Governors, when the Affairs of America wanted able Hands to manage them they think that the Ministry had the saving of Money chiefly in View, when, to gratify some small Services, they gave · Employments in America to those that were not capable of much meaner Offices at Home. The Opinion the People had of Colonel Slaughter's Capacity gave ground to these Surmises but, if it was fo, it happened to be very ill-laved Money ; for the Mismanagements in this country occasioned far greater Expence to the Crown afterwards, than would have bought such Gentlemen handsome Eftates, besides the great Losses they occafioned to the Subjects.

The greatest Number of the Inhabitants of the Province of New York being Dutch, still retained an Affection to their Mother Country', and by their Averfion to the English weakened the Administration. The common People of Albany, who are all Dutch, could not forbear giving the Indians fome ill Impressions of the English; for the Mobawks, in one of their publick Speeches, expressed themselves thus : “ We hear a Dutch Prince 'reigns s now in England, why do you suffer the English

Soldiers to remain in the Fort ? put all the En66 glish out of the Town. When the Dutch held “ this Country long ago, we lay in their Houses ; 6 but the Englise have always made us lie without « Doors.' It is true, that the Plantations were


first settled by the meanest People of every Nation, and such as had the least Sense of any Honour. The Dutch first Settlers, many of them I may say, had . none of the Virtues of their Countrymen, except their Industry in getting Money, and they lacrificed every Thing, other People think honourable or most sacred, to their Gain : But I do not think it proper to give particular Instances of this.

The People of N.w-England were engaged in a bloody War at this Time with the Owenagungas, Ouragies, and Ponacoks, the Indians that lie between them and the French Settlements. The Scahkooks were originally Part of these Indians.; They left their Country about the Year 1672, and settled above Albany, on the Branch of Hudson's River that runs towards Canada. The People of New-England were jealous of the Scahkook Indians, that they remembring the old Difference they had with the People of New England, and the Relation they bore to the Eastern Indians, did countenance and assist these Indians in the War against News England. They had Reason for these Jealousies, for the Scahkook Indians received privately some Owenagunga Messengers, and kept their coming among them secret from the People of Albany; and fome Scahkooks had gone privately to the Owenagungas. They were afraid likewise, that the Mehawks might have fome Inclination to favour those Indians, because some of the Eastern Indians had fied to the Mohawks, and were kindly received by them, and lived among them.

Notwithstanding all these Failures of good Po. licy, in the Government of New York, the French had not gained so great Advantages, if they had not carefully

observed a different Conduct, which it is now necessary to confider.

Canada was at this Time in a very distressed. Condition, the Country and our Plantations burnt F 3


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