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the Mischief, with forty others, to beg Pardon ; but Monsieur Coursel was resolved to make an Example of Agariata, and ordered him to be hanged in Sight of his Countrymen ; and the French think that this Severity was a great Means of preserving the Peace till the Year 1683.
The Dutch, who settled in the New-Nether. lands, now called New-York, in 1609, entered into an Alliance with the Five Nations, which continued without any Breach on either Side, till the Englis gained this Country. The Dutch gained the Hearts of the Five Nations by their kind Usage, and were frequently useful to the French, in saving those of them that were Prisoners from the Cruelty of the Indians.
In 1664, New-York being taken by the English, they likewise immediately entered into a FriendShip with the Five Nations, which has continued without the least Breach to this Day; and Hiftory, I believe, cannot give an Instance of the most Christian or most Catholick Kings observing a Treaty so strictly, and for so long a Time as these Barbarians, as they are called, have done.
The English and French (Peace being, every where settled) now endeavoured to extend their Commerce and Alliances among the Indian Nations, that live to the westward of New-York. The French, however, in their Measures, discovered always a Design of conquering and commanding; for with this View Mr. de Frontenac, who had fucceeded in the Government of Canada, in the Year 1672, persuaded the Five Nations to allow him to build a Fort on the north Side of Cadarackui Lake, under Pretence of a Store for Merchandise, and the Security of his Traders, and under the Tame Pretence built several other Forts at some other considerable Places far in the Country,
The English and Dutch, on the contrary, pro• fecuted their Measures only with the Arts of Peace, by sending People among the Indians to gain their Affections, and to perfuade them to come to Albany to trade“; but the War with the Dutch, which happened about this Time, prevented even thefe honeft Defigns from having the Succefs they otherwife might have had; for in the Year 1673, New. York being furprised by the Dutch, and restored the next Year to the English, the Alterations of Government, and of Mafters, obstructed very much any Measures that could have been taken for the publick Good. Their Trade was likewise confiderably hindered by the War which the Five Nations had at that Time with the * River Indians, which forced many of those Indians to seek Shelter among the Utawawas, who fell under the French Government at last; however, the English, Dutch and French, having all made Peace in Europe, and the Government of New-York likewise having obtained a Peace between the Five Nations and Mahikindars or River Indians, both the English and French were at full Liberty to prosecute their Designs of extending their Commerce among the Indians, which both did with very confiderable Succefs and Advantage to the Inhabitants of their refpective Colonies.
But this Justice must be done to the French, that they får exceeded the English in the daring Attempts of some of their Inhabitants, in travelling very far among unknown Indians, discovering new Countries, and every where spreading the Fame of the French Name and Grandeur. The Sieur Perot travelled in the Year 1667, as far as the Fall
* The Indians living on the Branches of Hudson's River, within or near the English Settlements at that Time.
St. Mary beyond Missilimakinak, and having learned those Indians Language, gained them over to his Country's Interest.
The Courage and Resolution of many of these Adventurers are deservedly recorded by the French; but the English give it another Turn, and say it is the Barrenness and Poverty of Canada that pushes the Men of Spirit there, upon Enterprizes, that they
would not have attempted, if they had lived in the Province of New-York. The chief Reason, in my Opinion, however, of the French having so far succeeded beyond the English, is, that the Indian Affairs are the particular Care of the Governor and other principal Officers in Canada, who have the greatest Knowledge and Authority; whereas those Affairs in New-York are chiefly left to the Management of a few Traders with the Indians, who have no Care for, or Skill in publick Affairs, and only mind their private Interest.
CHAP. III. Of the Tranfactions of the Indians of the Five Nations with the neighbouring English Colonies.
HE Five Nations being now amply supplied
.by the English with Fire-Arms and Ammu. nition, give full Swing to their warlike Genius, and foon resolved to revenge the Affronts they had at any Time received from the Indian Nations that lived at a greater Distance from them. The neareft Nations, as they were attack'd, commonly fled to those that were further off, and the Five Nations pursued them. This, together with a Desire they had of conquering, or Ambition of making all the Nations round them their Tributaries, or to acknowledge the Five Nations to be so far their Mafters, as to be abfolutely directed by them in all Affairs of Peace and War with their Neighbours, made them over-run great Part of North-America. They carried their Arms as far South as Carolina, to'the northward of New-England, and as far West as the River Mifilipi, over a vast Country, which extends twelve hundred Miles in Length, from North to South, and about fix hundred Miles in Breadth ; where they entirely destroyed many Nations, of whom there are now no Accounts remaining among the English.
These Warlike Expeditions often proved troublesome to the Colonies of Virginia and Maryland ; for not only the Indians that were Friends to those Colonies became Victims to the Fury of the Five Nations, but the Christian Inhabitants likewise were frequently involved in the same Calamity. .'
The French having a long Time felt the Inconveniencies and Dangers they were in from this restlefs warlike Spirit of the Five Nations, made use of this Time of Peace to guard against it for the future, and were very diligent in pursuing the most prudent Measures. They sent some of their wisest Priests and Jesuits to reside among them, and the Governors of New-York were ordered, by the Duke of York, to give these Priests all the Encouragement in their Power. The chief View of these Priests was, to give the Indians the highest Opinion of the French Power and Wisdom, and to render the English as suspected and as mean as possible in their Eyes. They waited likewise for every Opportunity to breed a Quarrel between the English and the Indians, and to withdraw the Five Nations from fighting with those Nations that traded to Canada. For these Purposes these Priests were instrumental in turning the Resentment of the Five Nations against the Indians, that were in Friendship with Virginia and Maryland. The Governor of Maryland, on the other Hand, to prevent the ill Confequences that might happen by Wars between
Nations that were in Friendship with the Englife, and lived in their Neighbourhood, fent Colonel Courfey, in 1677, to Albany, to increase the Friend thip between Virginia and Maryland on the one Part, and the Five Nations on the other'; and, accordingly, both Sides gave mutual Promises at Albany : But this good Understanding was soon shaken by fome Parties of the Oneydoes, Onondagas, and Senekas, who were out when this Treaty was made, and were ignorant of it. One of them met with the Sulguehana Indians, who were in Friendship with Maryland, and fell upon them; they killed four of the Sulguebanas, and took fix Prisoners. Five of these Prisoners fell to the Share of the Senekas, who, as foon as they arrived in their own Country, fent them back with Presents, to shew that they kept their Promises with Maryland; but the Oneydoes detained the Prisoner they had.
Another Party, that went against the Canagesle Indians (Friends of Virginia) were surprised by a Troop of Horse, who killed one Man, and took a Woman Prisoner. The Indians, in Revenge, killed four of the Inhabitants, and carried away their Scalps, with fix Christian Prisoners.
The Mohawks, all this while, kept strictly to their Words, and suffered none of their Men to go towards Virginia and Maryland.
There is Reason to think that the Dutch, who lived about Albany at that Time, spirited up the Indians against the English; the national Differences, that were then recent, bred a Rancour in their Spirits. Some Dutchmen persuaded the Oneydoes, that the English at New-York were resolved to de stroy them, and put them into a terrible Disturbance ; for here the Dutch and the French Priests joined in the fame Measures. The Commandant at Albany hearing of this, fent two Interpreters of