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and law feveral of their Performances ; I was present at their Worship, where they went through some Part of the Common Prayer with great Decency. n I was likewise present, several Times, at their private Devotions, which some of them performed duly, Morning and Evening. I had also many Opportunities of observing the great Regard they had for this young Man; so far, that the Fear of his leaving them made the greatest Restraint on them, with which he threatened them, after they had been guilty of any Offence. Soon after that Time, this Gentleman went to England, received Orders, and was sent by the Society, Mifer fionary to Albany, with Liberty to spend some Part of his Time among the Mohawks.

I had lately a Letter from him, dated the seventh of December, 1641, in which he writes as follows: « Drunkenness was so common among them, that

I doubt, whether there was one grown Person « of either Sex free from it; feldom a Day passed

without some, and very often forty or fifty being s drunk at a Time. But I found they were very “ fond of keeping me among them, and afraid I

fhould leave them, which I wade Use of to good “ Purpose; daily threatning them with my Depar« ture, in Cafe they did not forsake that Vice, and “ frequently requiring a particular Promise from "them singly; by which Means (through God's

Blefling) there was a gradual Reformation ; and " I know not that I have seen above ten or twelve $! Perfons drunk among them this Summer. The "Women are almost all entirely reformed, and "the Men very much. They have entirely left « off Divorces, and are legally married. They are “ very constant and devout at Church and Family “Devotions. They have not been known to exsercife Cruelty to Prisoners, and have, in a great Measure, left off going a fighting, which I find

so the

-the most difficult, of all Things, to diffuade them “ from. They seem also persuaded of the Truths " of Christianity. The greatest Inconveniency I « labour under, is the Want of an Interpreter, “ which could I obtain, for two or three Years, I “ should hope to be tolerably Master of their Language,

and be able to sender it easier to my " Succeffor."

This Gentleman's uncommon Zeal deferves, I think, this publick Testimony, that it may be 2 Means of his receiving fuch Encouragement, as may enable him to pursue the pious Purpofes he has in View.

· The Mohawks, were they civilized, may be useful to us many Ways, and, on many Occalions, more than

any of our own People can be, and this well deserves to be considered.

There is one Custom their Men constantly obferve, which I must not forget to mention; That if they be fent with any Message, though it demand the greatest Dispatch, or though they bring Intelligence of any imminent Danger, they never tell it at their first Approach ; but fit down for a Minute or two, at least, in Silence, to recollect themfelves, before they speak, that they may not fhew any Degree of Fear or Surprize, by an indecent Expression. Every sudden Repartee, in a public Treaty, leaves with them an Impression of a lignt inconfiderate Mind ; but, in private Conversation, they use, and are delighted with brisk witty Anfwers, as we can be. By this they fhew the great Difference they place between the Conversations of Man and Man, and of Nation and Nation; and in this, and a thousand other Things, might well be an Example to the European Nations.


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On the Province of NEW-YORK.

PART I. The History of the Five Nations, from the Time

the Christians first knew any Thing of them, to that of the Revolution in Great-Britain,


СНА Р. І. Of the Wars of the Five Nations with the Adiron

dacks and Quatoghies, HE first Settlers of New-York having been

little curious in inquiring into the Indian Affairs, further than what related to Trade; or, at least, having neglected to transmit their Disco veries to Pofterity, it is much more difficult to give a juft History of these Nations before, than since the Time of their being under the Crown of England, What we can learn of Certainty, however, is this. The French settled at Canada in the Year 1603, fix

Years Years before the Dutch possessed themselves of Nao Netherlands, now called New York, and found the Five Nations at War with the Adirondacks, which, they tell us, was occafioned in the follow ing Manner.

The Adirondacks formerly lived three-hundred Miles above Trois Rivieres, where now the Utawawas are situated ; at that Time they employ'd themselves wholly in Hunting, and the Five Nations made planting of Corn their Bufiness. By this Means they became useful to each other, by exchanging Corn for Venison. The Adirondacks, however, valued themselves, as delighting in a more manly Employment, and despised the Five Nations, in following Business, which they thought only fit for Women. But it once happened, that the Game failed the Adirondacks, which made them defire fome of the young Men of the Five Nation's to affift them in Hunting. These young Men foon became much more expert in Hunting, and able to endure Fatigues, than the Adirondacks expected or.defired; in short, they became jealous of them, and, one Night, murdered all the young Men they had with them. The Five Nations complained to the Chiefs of the Adirondacks, of the Inhumanity of this Action; but they contented themselves with blaming the Murderers, and or dered them to make sone small + Presents to the Relations of the murdered Persons, without being apprehensive of the Refentment of the Five Na tions ; for they looked upon them, as Men not capable of taking any great Revenge.

This, however, provoked the Five Nations to that Degree, that they foon refolved, by fome Means, to be revenged ; and the Adirondacks being

informed + It is still a Cuftom among the Indians, to expiate Murder by Prefents to the Relations of the Person killed.

Ás they

informed of their Designs, thought to prevent them by reducing them with Force to their Obedience.

The Five Nations then lived near where Mont Real now ftands; they defended themselves at first butfaintly against the vigorous Attacks of the Adirondacks, and were forced to leave their own Country, and Ay to the Banks of the Lakes where they live now. were hitherto Losers by the War, it obliged them to apply themselves to the Exercise of Arms, in which they became daily more and more expert. Their Şacbems, in order to raise their People's Spirits, turned them against the * Satanas, a less warlike Nation, who then lived on the Banks of the Lakes; for they found it was difficult to remove the Dread their People had of the Valour of the Adirondacks. The Five Nations foon fubdued the Satanas, and drove them out of their Country; and their People's Courage being thus elevated, they, from this Time, not only defended themselves bravely against the whole Force of the Adirondacks, but often carried the War into the Heart of the Adirondacks's Country, and, at laft, forced them to leave it, and to fly to that Part of the Country, where Quebeck is now.built.

There are more Initances than one in History, of poor dispirited Nations, that by fome signal Affront or Abuse have had their Spirits so raised, that they have not only performed notable Things on a sudden, but, if they happened, at the same Time, to beled and governed by wise Men, have so far kept up and improved that Spirit, that they have become, in a Manner, a different People. Let us examine History, and we shall find, that the different Figureevery Country has made in the World, has been ever principally owing to the Principles which were inculcated into, and carefully cultivated in the People. In thischiefly

* They are called Sbaouonons, by the French, and live dow on one of the Banks of the Misisipi,

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