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and destroyed, their Trade intirely at a stand, great Numbers of their People flain, and the Remainder in danger of perishing by Famine, as well as by: the Sword of inveterate cruel Enemies. When fuch Misfortunes happen to a Country, under any Administration, though in Truth the Conduct of Affairs be not to be blamed, it is often prudent to change the Ministers; for the common People never fail to blame them, notwithstanding their haying acted with the greatest Wisdom, and therefore cannot fo foon recover their Spirits, that are funk by Misfortunes, as by putting their Affairs into different Hands.

For these Reasons, it is probable, the French King recalled Mr. de Nonville, but rewarded him for his Services, by an honourable Employment in the Houshold. The Count de Frontenac was sent in his place. This Gentleman had been formerly Governor of that Country, and was perfe&tly acquainted with its Interest; of a Temper of Mind fitted to such desperate Times, of undaunted Courage, and indefatigable, though in the fixty-eighth Year of his Age. The Count de Frontenac arrived the second of October 1689. The Country immediately received new Life by the Arrival of a Perfon, of whofe Courage and Conduct every one had entertained a high Opinion. Care was taken to increase this Impression on the Minds of the People, by making publick Rejoicings with as much Noise as possible. He wisely improved this new Life, by immediately entering upon Action, without suffering their Hopes to grow cold. He staid. no longer at Quebeck, than was nécessary to be informed of the present State of Affairs, and in four or five Days after his Arrival set out in a Canoe for Montreal, where his Presence was most necefsary; and the Winter was already fo far advanced, that the Ice made it impracticable to go in a larger


Veffel. By this the old Gentleman increased the Opinion and Hopes the People entertained of him, that, without staying to refresh himself after a fatiguing Sea-Voyage, he would immediately undertake another, that required all the Vigour and Heat of Youth to withstand the Inclemencies of the Climate and Season, and the Difficulty of such: a Passage:

When the Count de Frontenac came to Montreal, he increased the Admiration the People had of his Vigour and Zeal, by pretending to go to visit Cadarackui Fort, now abandoned, which he had built in the Time he was formerly Governor. The Clergy and People of Montreal came jointly with stretched out Arms, representing the Danger of such an Attempt, and the Difficulties and HardAhips that would neceffarily attend it, praying him not to expose a Life that was so neceffary for their Safety. He, with seeming Reluctance, yielded to their Intreaties; I say with seeming Reluctance, for it was inconfiftent with his Prudence really to have fuch a Design. This Shew of the Governor's offering to go in Person, animated some of the Gentlemen of the Country, who voluntarily went in the Winter, with one Hundred Indian Traders, to visit that Fort; and finding it in better Condition than they expected, by the Report of those who had abandoned it, they staid there, and made fome fmall Reparations in the Walls, which the Indians had thrown down.

The Count de Frontenac brought back with him Tawerahet, a Capiga Sachem, one of the thirteen Prisoners that Mr. de Nonville took at Cadarackui, and sent to France. He was in Hopes this Indian would be useful in procuring a Treaty of Peace with the Five Nations, for they had an extraordinary Opinion of Tawerahet; and the French had found, by fad Experience, that they could not be




Gainers by continuing the War: For this Purpose, the Count used Tawerahet with much Kindness, during his Voyage, and, after he arrived at Quebeck, lodged him in the Castle under his own Roof, and took such Pains with this Sachem, that he forgot all the ill Usage he had formerly received.

The French had the more Reason to desire a. Peace with the Five Nations, because they knew, that they would now certainly have the English Colonies likewise upon them ; and if the Five Nations had been able to do so much Mischief by themselyes alone, they were mucli more to be feared, when they would be affifted, in all Probability, with the Force and Interest of the English Colonies.

Four Indians of less Note, who were brought back along with Tawerahet, were immediately dispatched, in the Sachem's Name, to the Five Nations, to inform them of his Return, and of the kind Usage they had received from the Count de Frontenac ; and to press them to send some to visit their old Friend, who had been so kind to them when he was formerly Governor of Canada, and who still retained an Affection to the Five Nations ; as appeared by the Kindness Tawerahet and they had received from him. This was the only Me-' thod left to the French of making Proposals of Peace, which it was their Interest by all Means to procure.

The Governor of Canada, as I said, conceived that there was 'no Way so proper to keep up the Spirits of the People, who had got new Life by his Arrival, as by putting them upon Action; and indeed their present miserable Condition made them forward enough, to undertake the most desperate Enterprize, when the frequent Incursions of the


Indians made it as dangerous to be at Home, as to attack the Enemy abroad.

For this purpose he sent out three Parties in the Winter ; one was designed against New-York, the other against Connecticut, and the last against NewEngland.

The Five Nations followed Colonel Dungan's Advice, in endeavouring to bring off the Western Indians from the French, and had all the Success that could be expected, before Mr. de Frontenac arrived,

They were overjoyed when they heard, that the English had entered into War with the French, and came several Times to Albany to know the Certainty of it, while it was only rumoured about. The People of Albany defired them to secure any of the praying Indians that should come from Canada, if they found that they were still ruled by the Priests ; but to encourage them, if they came with a Design to return to their own Country.

The Senekas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Oneydoes, the twenty seventh of June 1689, before any Governor arrived, renewed the old Covenant (as they said) which was first made



with one Tagues, who came with a Ship into their River. “ Then we first became Brethren, said they, and « continued fo till last Fall, that Sir Edmond Andross

came and made a new Chain by calling us “ Children ; but let us stick to the old Chain, “ which has continued from the first Time it was “ made, by which we became Brethren, and have

since always behaved as such. Virginia, Maryland, and New-England, have been taken « into this silver Chain, with which our Friend“ ship is locked fast. We are now come to make “ the Chain clear and bright. Here they gave « two Bevers,"


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King James, a little before his Abdication, sent over Sir Edmond Andross with arbitrary Powers, and he, in Imitation of the French, changed the Stile of speaking to the Indians, of which they were very sensible.

They discovered a great Concern for their People that were carried to Canada; 'they long hoped (they. faid) that the King of England would have been powerful enough to deliver them, but now they began to lose all Hopes of them.


A Treaty between the Agents of Massachuset's Bay,

New-Plymouth, and Connecticut, and the Sa-
chems of the Five Nations, at Albany, in the

Year 1689.

A ;

BOUT the Beginning of September 1689, and Captain Jonathan Bull, Agents for the Colonies of Massachufet's Bay, New-Plymouth, and Connecticut, arrived at Älbany, to renew the Friendship with the Five Nations, and to engage them against the Eastern Indians, who made War on the English of those Colonies, and were supported by the French.

The Five Nations had received four Messengers from the Eastern Indians, which gave the People of New-England fome Apprehensions, and they were therefore defirous to know what Reception these Messengers had met with.

The Five Nations answered by Tahajadoris, a Mohawk Sachem, on the twenty fourth of September. He made a long Oration, repeating all that the Agent from New-England had faid, the Day before, and desired them to be attentive to the Answer now to be made to them. They commonly repeat over all that has been said to them, before they return


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