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swearing, commanded Christians to swear, then I will swear. I saw several priests there, but never an one of them offered to speak. Then said the judge, I am a servant of the king, and the king sent me not to dispute with you, but to put the laws in execution ; therefore tender him the oath of allegiance. “If thou love the king,” said I, “why dost thou break his word, and not keep his declarations and speeches, wherein he promised liberty to tender consciences. I am a man of a tender conscience, and in obedience to Christ's command I cannot swear. will not swear, said the judge ; take him away, jailor. I said, It is for Christ's sake that I cannot swear, and for obedience to his command I suffer, and so the Lord forgive you all. So the jailor took me away; but I felt the mighty power of the Lord was over them all.

(From the Same.)

Then you

AN APPEAL

SOUND, sound abroad, you faithful servants of the Lord, and witnesses in his name, and faithful servants and prophets of the Highest, and angels of the Lord ! Sound ye all abroad in the world, to the awakening and raising of the dead, that they may be awakened and raised up out of the grave, to hear the voice that is living. For the dead have long heard the dead, and the blind have long wandered among the blind, and the deaf amongst the deaf; therefore sound, sound, ye servants and prophets, and angels of the Lord, ye trumpets of the Lord, that you may awaken the dead, and awaken them that be asleep in their graves of sin, death and hell, and sepulchres, and sea, and earth, and who lie in the tombs. Sound, sound abroad, ye trumpets, and raise up the dead, that the dead may hear the voice of the Son of God, the voice of the second Adam, that never fell; the voice of the light, and the voice of the life; the voice of the power, and the voice of the truth ; the voice of the righteous, and the voice of the just.

Sound, sound the pleasant and melodious sound ! Sound, sound, ye the trumpets, the melodious sound abroad, that all the deaf ears may be opened to hear the pleasant sound of the trumpet to judgment and life, to condemnation and light. Sound, sound your trumpets all abroad, you angels of the Lord, sons and daughters, prophets of the highest, that all that are dead and asleep in the graves, and been long dreaming and slumbering, may be awakened, and hear the voice of the Lamb, who have long heard the voice of the beast ; that now they may hear the voice of the Bridegroom, now they may hear the voice of the Bride, now they may hear the voice of the great Prophet, now they may hear the voice of the great King, now they may hear the voice of the great Shepherd, and the great Bishop of their souls. Sound, sound it all abroad, ye trumpets, among the dead in Adam, for Christ is come, the second Adam, that they might have life, yea have it abundantly. Awaken the dead, awaken the slumberers, awaken the dreamers, awaken them that be asleep, awaken them out of their graves, out of their tombs, out of their sepulchres, out of the seas! Sound, sound abroad you trumpets ! you trumpets that awaken the dead, that they may all hear the sound of it in the graves, and they that hear may live, and come to the life that is the Son of God; He is risen from the dead, the grave could not hold nor contain Him, neither could all the watchers of the earth, with all their guards, keep Him therein. Sound, sound, ye trumpets of the Lord, to all the seekers of the living among the dead, that He is risen from the dead ; to all the seekers of the living among the dead, and in the graves that the watchers keep, He is not in the grave, but He is risen ; and there is that under the grave of the watchers of the outward grave, which must be awakened and come to hear His voice, which is risen from the dead, that they might come to live. Therefore sound abroad, you trumpets of the Lord, that the grave might give up her dead, and hell and the sea might give up their dead ; and all might come forth to judgment, to the judgment of the Lord before his throne, and to have their sentence and reward according to their works.

And sound, sound, all ye angels and faithful servants of the Most High, you trumpets of the Lord, amongst all the night watchers and watchers of the graves, sepulchres, and tombs, and overseers of those watchers of the seas, graves, and sepulchres, sound the trumpet amongst them and over them all; make the sound to be heard, that the dead may arise at the sound of the trumpet, that they may come out of their graves, and live and praise the Lord ; that all the dead in the seas, and all the dead in the tombs and sepulchres may hear the sound of the trumpet, and come to judgment, and come to hear the voice of the Son of God and live, in whom there is life.

Away with all the chaff and the husks, and contentions and strife, that the swine feed upon in the mire and in the fall ; and the keepers of them of Adam and Eve's house in the fall, that lies in the mire, out of light and life.

(From the Same.)

GREETING TO CHARLES II. ON HIS RESTORATION

late years.

LET thy moderation be known unto all men, for the Lord is at hand whose presence filleth Heaven and earth ; and let such a nobility appear in thee as to try all things and to hold fast that which is good ; and either to read or to hear with patience before thou judge ; for wisdom becometh a king, and true reason,

solidness and patience, him that is a ruler of the people. The God of Heaven hath put into my heart to write unto thee, and in tender love both to thy soul and body, to lay before thee several things whereby thou mayest come to me and consider, how the mighty hand and justice of the invisible God hath been in these overturnings and changes, which have happened in these nations of

Therefore, consider these things. The mighty God, the everlasting Father, He is the King of kings and the Lord of lords; and the whole earth is His, and the fulness thereof, and He ruleth over the kingdoms of men, and giveth them to whomsoever He pleaseth. Yea, He pulleth down one and setteth up another, and there is no overturning or changing in kingdoms but it is either by His commission or permission, and the Lord doth not do anything, neither suffereth He anything to be done unto persons or kingdoms without a cause (though he may do whatsoever he pleaseth) and who shall call Him to an account ? Yet all His doings are righteous, and His ways are just and equal altogether; and it is for the unrighteousness, sometimes of a king or kings, and sometimes of a people, and other times of both, that the Lord doth break or suffer a nation or nations to be broken ; and when He determines to break a people, or to change governors (or to suffer such things to be done) in vain do men strive to preserve or uphold them ; and the Lord may, and doth make whomsoever He pleaseth His instruments for to do His determined work; and when they have done His work, thus He may do whatsoever He pleaseth with them; and many times His instruments, when they begin His determined work, appear very contemptible unto many; yet, such speak foolishly and without understanding, who say that such instruments are too weak and cannot prevail, seeing all power is in the hand of God, who can give wisdom and strength and courage unto whomsoever He pleaseth ; . . . and when His instruments have done this work (and he determines to break or to suffer them to be broken again) let them appear never so wise, bold, and mighty, yet vainly do they speak who say such a wise, bold, and mighty people cannot be broken, seeing the Lord can do whatsoever He pleaseth, who suddenly can turn man's wisdom into folly, his strength into weakness, and his boldness into dauntedness of spirit. Now such things as these, o king, come oft to pass, and some of them without a cause, and they that are truly wise learn further and get understanding through all these things. Therefore is true wisdom better than strength, and a right understanding is better than an earthly crown. Therefore, o king, wait to feel the noble principle of wisdom, which God hath inspired thee withal ; for there is a measure of it in thee, though it hath been hid, and that measure is the light, which Christ the wisdom of God hath enlightened thee withal, which light in thee is that which never had fellowship with darkness in thee, or its deeds, nor concord with the devil or his works, but makes manifest and reproves all such things, which light being received in the love of it and believed and united in, man becomes a child of it, and so it gives him a good understanding. . . . Therefore, O king, give all diligence to receive the gift which God hath placed in thy heart, that so thou mayest be acquainted with wisdom, and that thou mayest be filled with moderation, gravity, and patience, and come to a right understanding and discerning, that so thou may'st rightly look upon things past, present, and to come ; and see them as they were, are, or shall be.

ROBERT BOYLE

[Robert Boyle was the seventh son of Richard, first Earl of Cork, one of the most active and successful statesmen of his busy day, and of Catherine Fenton his wife, and was born at Lismore Castle in Munster, on the 25th of January 1627. His education at home gave him a mastery of French and Latin, and he was afterwards distinguished for the purity and ease of his conversation in the language of learning. It was at Geneva, where he was resident for a time on leaving Eton, with a greatly valued tutor, that he first experienced, at the age of fourteen, an impulse to religious meditation which never left him. By the death of his father in 1644 he inherited the manor of Stalbridge, in Dorsetshire, and considerable wealth, which was largely increased in after years by the favour of his sovereign, and devoted in abundant measure (witness Bishop Burnet) to the spread of scriptural knowledge, and to the aid of poor students of science. He was elected president of the Royal Society in 1680, but declined the honour. He settled at Oxford in 1654 and removed to London in 1668, where he died on the 30th of December 1691. In these years he was incessantly engaged in chemical and physical investigations and in the writing of his scientific and religious works. They took the form of essays, the complete edition of which was published in five folios by Dr. Birch in 1744.

In physics Boyle is of course renowned as the discoverer, or, to speak more accurately, as the adapter to scientific purposes of the air-pump, and in a lesser degree for Boyle's Law" of the relation between elasticity and pressure ; we may notice also his improvement in the thermometer, and his experiments in electricity. In chemistry his service was chiefly that of a clearer of the ground for others, in ridding it of confused and erroneous antiquities, and in indicating the direction of further efforts; he was a strict practitioner of experiment. He refused the provostship of Eton, which Charles II. offered him in 1665, on the grounds that its holder should be in orders, and that he could assist religion more valuably as a layman. He is said to have refused a peerage offered by Charles II., whose friend he was, as of James and William. Evelyn tells a love story of him which may or may not be true ; he never married, and is somewhat severe on the feminine character.]

In estimating the qualities of a writer of prose who was at few pains to be an artist therein, it is a useful preliminary to observe the essential stamp and direction of his intellect. Robert Boyle had the strict temperament of a man of science, as distinguished from that of a general philosopher. He guarded himself carefully

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