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NOTES TO VOL. XVII
(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages
of English text.)
I (P. 25).- Regarding the Wenrðhronons, see vol. xvi., note 15.
2 (p. 49). — The arms, utensils, ornaments, and dress introduced by the French, in their barter for peltries, were at once seen by the Indians to be superior to those manufactured by themselves, and were eagerly sought. The French early induced the natives to turn their attention almost exclusively to the hunting of fur-bearing animals,- to this end teaching them the use of European firearms. The tribesmen finding it easier to acquire what goods they needed by trading furs for them, many of the arts of domestic manufacture were soon lost among them; and, in time, they became almost wholly dependent on white traders for their supplies.
3 (p. 59). — For location of Teanaustayaé, see vol. xiii., note 2; also map in vol. x., facing p. 319
4 (p. 65).— For sketch of this and of the other Iroquois clans, see vol. viii., note 34.
5 (p. 99).-- Martin (Life of Jogues, app. A.) is correct in saying that there were two missions bearing the name of St. Ignace. The one captured by the Iroquois in 1649 was apparently thus named but a short time before its destruction (Relation of 1648, chap. ix.); it was not more than five miles from Ste. Marie-on-the-Wye.
The other, known by the Hurons as Taenhatentaron, is placed by Lalemant (Relation of 1644, chap. vii.) at a distance of about six leagues from Ste. Marie; this is evidently the St. Ignace marked on Du Creux's map as near Sturgeon River. Martin inclined to the view that this mission was situated on what is now the Fox farm lot no. 20, in concession 10 of Medonte township, on the slope facing Coldwater River; for, when he visited the district (1845; see vol. v., p. 295), the remains found on this farm were upon the only site then known in the neighborhood. In subsequent years, however, when the forest came to be cleared, remains indicating other sites were found from two to three miles west of this one, and facing Sturgeon River. One of these corresponds more closely than does the Fox site, with the re ence
text to Taenhatentaron, as being about five miles from St. Joseph (Teanaustayaé), and also with the
position assigned to that village by Du Creux; it also furnishes better evidence in other respects.
Taché appears to have overlooked the distinction between the two villages named St. Ignace. He minutely examined the site on the Fox farm in the mistaken belief that it was the scene of Brébeuf's and Lalemant's martyrdom (Parkman's Jesuits, p. 385, note),- in this, adopting Martin's view, and also forgetting that there was a second St. Ignace; so that the site thus designated by him does not correspond with the true position of either mission. The St. Ignace at which the martyrs perished was in the present Tay township, about ten miles distant from Taenhatentaron.-A. F. HUNTER.
6 (p. 159). — See Brébeuf's account of the game of dish, in vol. X., pp. 187, 189. Cf. Davis's "Indian Games," in Essex Inst. Bull., vol. xvii., pp. 106-114; by him it is called “the game of platter."
7 (p. 161).- This “resuscitation" of a dead person is thus described by Sagard (Voy. Hurons, pp. 289, 290): “The Attiuoindarons celebrate Resurrections of the dead,- especially of persons who deserved well of the country by their signal services,- in order that the memory of illustrious and valorous men may, in some sort, live again in others. Accordingly, they convene assemblies for this purpose, and hold councils, at which they choose one of their number who has the same virtues and characteristics (if such a person can be found), as he whom they purpose to resuscitate,- or, at least, his life must be without reproach among a Savage people. Proceeding, then, to the Resurrection, they all stand upright, except him who is to raise the dead; on him they impose the name of the deceased, and all, placing their hands low down, feign to raise him from the ground, - meaning by this that they draw out of the tomb that eminent deceased personage, and bring him back to life in the person of this other man. The latter stands up, and, after loud acclamations from the people, he receives the gifts offered by those who are present, who repeat their congratulations at many feasts, and thenceforth regard him as if he were the deceased person whom he represents. Thus the memory of good persons, and of worthy and valorous Captains, never dies among them.” The names given by the Indians to the missionaries were, in accordance with this custom, continued to their respective successors, as Echon, passing from Brébeuf to Chaumonot (vol. v., note 44); and Teharonhiagannra, as Le Mercier and Milet were entitled by the Iroquois, was their name, two hundred years later, for Father Marcoux (Shea's Cath. Missions, p. 345). Cf. “Patliasse," among the Micmacs (vol. i., note 25).
Of interest, in this connection, is a phase of the belief in transmigration of souls, current among the tribes of the Northwest, thus
described by Dorman (Prim. Superstitions, p. 45): "The medicinemen of the Cocomes pretend to receive the spirit of the dead in their hands, and are able to transfer it to any one, who then takes the name of the dead person. When a body is burned among the Tacullies, the priest receives the spirit of the deceased into his hands; and, with a motion as though throwing it, he blows the spirit into some person selected, who takes the name of the deceased in addition to his own.”
8 (p. 165).-Outay: probably the black squirrel, then abundant in the region of the Great Lakes, and valued for its fur. Sagard thus describes the Huron Otay (Voy. Hurons, p. 308), which he probably fails to class among the squirrels of that country (pp. 305-306) only because of its size - the other Canadian species of squirrel being much smaller than those of France: “They have another species of animal named Otay, as large as a small Rabbit; this has very black fur, so soft, smooth, and fine that it resembles plush. They highly value these skins, of which they make robes, placing around the edges of these all the heads and tails.” This sort of trimming suggests to Lafitau “the Amices of the Canons." Charlevoix (Nouv. France, vol. i., p. 273) says: But the finest Peltry of this [Iroquois) country is the skin of the black Squirrel. This animal is as large as a Cat three months old; it is exceedingly agile, but very gentle and easily caught. The Iroquois make robes of this, which they sell for as much as seven or eight pistoles." Cf. Le Jeune (vol. vii. of this series, p. 13).
9 (p. 167).— Cf. Brébeuf's description of Ononharoia and other superstitious rites (vol. x., pp. 175, 183).
10 (p. 191).— Brenesche: the wild goose of Canada (Bernicla canadensis, Baird; Anser canadensis, Audubon), or outarde (Prov. austarda, from Lat. avis tarda); it is especially abundant along the lower St. Lawrence and the Atlantic coast.
11 (p. 225).- Reference is here made to the compensation given to the De Caens for their losses in connection with the dissolution of their company by Montmorency, and, later, with Kirk's capture of Quebec; see vol. iv., pp. 257, 258. Cf. Le Jeune's allusion (vol. viii., p. 229): “They rejoice to be delivered from the importunity of a man whose hands it has been necessary to bind with chains of gold."