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THE CONFLICTS

OF

CAPITAL AND LABOUR.

THE CONFLICTS

OF

CAPITAL AND LABOUR

HISTORICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY CONSIDERED.

BRINGA

HISTORY AND REVIEW OF THE TRADE UNIONS

OF GREAT BRITAIN,

SHOWING

THEIR ORIGIN, PROGRESS, CONSTITUTION, AND OBJECTS,
IN THEIR VARIED POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMICAL,

AND INDUSTRIAL ASPECTS.

BY

GEORGE HOWELL, M.P.,

FELLOW OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY,
Author of the Handy-Book of the Labour Laws," etc. etc.

SECOND AND REVISED EDITION, BROUGHT DOWN

TO

DATE.

"Be just, and fear not."—Henry VIII., Act iii., Scene 2.
"Nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice."-Othello, Act v., Scene 2.

London:

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK

1890.

CHARLES DICKENS AND EVANS,

CRYSTAL PALACE PRESS.

Economics 12-19-46

57244

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

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The first edition of this work was published about twelve years ago-in 1878. In revising it for reissue I have been forcibly struck with the enormous changes which have taken place as regards industrial questions. So great have they been that the work has had to be practically rewritten. Then trade unions were denounced in the press, on the platform, in the pulpit, and in parliament; not occasionally, but constantly, persistently, and virulently. Many of the attacks to which allusion is made in the text appeared during the year in which the book was being written. One specimen only is preserved of the rancorous onslaughts on trade unionists so common in 1877 and in previous years. Now trade unions are bepraised and commended by all sorts and conditions of men. Their influence is sought socially and politically, and combination is preached as the one great panacea

or all kinds of social evils, even by the Lords' Committee on “Sweating.”

It might, perhaps, be thought egotistical were I to claim some share in effecting this change in public opinion. Yet this somewhat singular coincidence happened, that attacks

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