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WINSTON’S

CUMULATIVE
LOOSE-LEAF

ENCYCLOPEDIA

A COMPREHENSIVE
REFERENCE BOOK

Editor-in-Chief
CHARLES MORRIS
Litterateur, Historian and Encyclopedist
Author of Civilization,

an Historical Review of Its
Element," "The Aryan Race," "Manual of Classical
Literature," "Man and His Ancestors," "Famous Men
and Great Events of the Nineteenth century." and
numerous other works. Editor of "Twentieth Cen-
tury Encyclopedia,' "Biographical Dictionary."
"Famous Orators of the World, “Half Hours with
the Best American Authors," etc., etc. Member of
the "Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,"
“Geographical Society of Philadelphia," "Natural His.
tory Society," and "Society for Physical Research."

-ASSISTED BY
A CORPS OF CONTRIBUTORS

Authorities on Special Subjects

in Ten volumes

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, DRAWINGS AND
COLOR PLATES; INCLUDING SEVEN COLOR PLATES FROM
THE J. L. G. FERRIS COLLECTION OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL

PAINTINGS, BY SPECIAL PERMISSION OF THE ARTIST

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY
CHICAGO
PHILADELPHIA

TORONTO

KF 2344

HARVARD
COLLEGE
LIBRARY

COPYRIGHT 1921, BY
THE JOHN C. WINSTON Co.
Copyright 1912-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20

Binder protected under
UNITED STATES PATENT RIGHTS OF

AUGUST 27, 1918

June 4, 1907
DOMINION OF CANADA PATENT RIGHTS OF

JUNE 24, 1919

MADE IN U. S. A.

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles:

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done: å, as in fate, or in bare.

eu, a long sound as in Fr. jeûne, å, as in alms, Fr. ame, Ger. Bahn=á Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe of Indian names.

(Goethe). å, the same sound short or medium, as eu, corresponding sound short or mediin Fr. bal, Ger. Mann,

um, as in Fr. peu=Ger. ö short. a, as in fat.

ō, as in note, moan. å, as in fall.

0, as in not, frog—that is, short or a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u in

medium. but, é in her : common in Indian

ö, as in move, two.

û, as in tube. ē, as in meri in machine.

u, as in tub: similar to é and also to a.

#, as in bull. e, as in met.

ü, as in Sc abune=Fr. ll as in da, ė, as in her.

Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne. i, as in pine, or as ei in Ger. Mein.

ů, the corresponding short or medium i, as in pin, also used for the short sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller.

sound corresponding to ē, as in oi, as in oil.
French and Italian words.

ou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.

names.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols are employed: ch is always as in rich.

erally much more strongly trilled. d, nearly as th in this Sp. d in

s, always as in so. Madrid, etc.

th, as th in thin. 8 is always hard, as in go. ħ represents the guttural in Scotch

th, as th in this. loch, Ger. nach, also other similar

w always consonantal, as in we. gutturals.

X = ks, which are used instead. 9, Fr. nasal n as in bon.

y always consonantsi, as in yea (Fr. y represents both English r, and r in ligne would be re-written lēny).

foreign words, in which it is gen- zh, as s in pleasure = Fr. Å

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