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to Syria, where the Atlas Mountain bear; Bearberry (Aretostaphyloh ura ursin: of the species, also a very large bear, is heath family growing on the barren the cinnamon bear of the northern United moors of Scotland, Northern Europe, Si. States and Canada. The grizzly bear beria, and N. America. The leaves, un(Ursus horribilis) is a distinctly North der the name of uva ursi, are used in American species, being a denizen chiefly medicine as an astringent and tonic. of the mountainous region of the western Beard (bērd), the hair round the chin,

on the cheeks, and the upper lip which is a distinction of the male sex and of manhood. It differs from the hair on the head by its greater hardness and its form. Some nations have hardly any, others a great profusion. The latter generally consider it as a great ornament; the former pluck it out; as, for instance, the American Indians. The beard has often been considered as a mark of the sage and the priest. Moses forbade the Jews to shave their beards. With the ancient Germans the cutting off of another's beard was a high offense. Even now the beard is regarded as a mark of

great dignity among many nations in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus).

East, as the Turks. Alexander the Great United States and portions of Canada. ordering his soldiers to wear no beards;

introduced shaving among the Greeks, by The well-known American black bear (Ursus Americanus) is distributed over

among the Romans it was introduced in nearly all the wooded region of the Con. B.c. 296. The custom of shaving is said tinent. In the St. Elias Alps of Alaska to have come into use in modern times a small and rare gray-coated species exists, during the reigns of Louis XIII and called the glacier bear (Ursus midden: XIV of France, both of whom ascended

Till then dorff). South America has a single the throne without a beard. species, the small, spectacled bear, inhab fashion had given divers forms of musiting the higher Andes; by some natural. taches and beards. It was only in comists classed as a distinct genus, Tremara paratively recent times that beards and tos ornatus. The Asian black bears (Un mustaches again became common. This 8u8 tibetanus) are found in the Himal. name is also given to the awns or aristæ ayan region, northern China and Japan. of certain cereals, such as wheat, rye, They resemble the American black bear, etc., bristle-like projections from the but have a crescent-shaped white or yel bract in the inflorescence, produced by a lowish mark on the breast. Another little prolongation of the midrib. known parti-colored species (Ursus pru. Beard-grass, well-known British

name given to two inosus) inhabits Tibet. In the Malay archipelago is found the little sun bear. grasses of the genus Polypogon from the The distinct sloth or honey bear (Melur- bearded appearance of the panicles. 8u8 labiatus) is a native of India, living Beard-moss lichen of gray color, mostly in the jungle and subsisting chiefly on insects. All of the northern bears forming a shaggy coat on many forest hibernate during the winter. It is at this trees. time that the cubs, usually two, are born, Beardstown, a city of Cass.Co., Illi

: Bear, GREAT and LITTLE, the popular

name of two constellations in the St. Louis. It is on Illinois River and northern hemisphere. The Great Bear has large fishing and ice-packing in(Ursa Major) is situated near the pole. dustries ;


various manufactures. It is remarkable for its well-known seven Pop. (1920) 7111. stars; by two of which, called the point. Bearing (baring); the direction or These seven stars are popularly called the which an object is seen, or the situation Wagon, Charles's Wain, or the Plow, of one object in regard to another, with The Little Bear (Ursa Minor) is the reference to the points of the compass. constellation which contains the pole-star. Thus, it from a certain situation an obThis constellation has seven stars placed ject is seen in the direction of northeast, together in a manner resembling those the bearing of the object is said to be the Great Bear.

N. E. from the situation.-To take bear

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Bear Lake



ings, to ascertain on what point of the the future saint are exposed to the ven. compass objects lie.

eration of all good Christians. Bear Lake, GREAT, an extensive Beating the Bounds, the period. the Northwest Territory of Canada, be or perambulation by which the boundaries tween about 65° and 67° 32' n. lat. ; and of parishes in England are preserved. It under the 120th degree of w. long.; of ir- is, or was, the custom that the clergyman regular shape;

about 7000 sq. of the parish, with the parochial officers miles. The water is very clear and the and the boys of the parish school, should lake abounds in fish.-BEAR-LAKE RIVER, march to the boundaries, which the boys the outlet at the S. w. extremity of struck with willow rods. A similar Great Bear Lake, runs s. W. for 70 miles ceremony in Scotland is called riding the and joins the Mackenzie River.

marches. Béarn (ba-árn), one of the provinces Beaton (bē'ton), DAVID, Archbishop into which France was for

of St. Andrews, and cardinal : merly divided, now chiefly included in the born 1494. Pope Paul III raised him to department of Lower Pyrenees. Pau is the rank of cardinal in December, 1538. the chief town. There is a peculiar and on the death of his uncle, Archbishop well-marked dialect-the Béarnese- James Beaton, he succeeded him in the spoken in this district, which has much see of St. Andrews in 1539. After the more affinity with the Spanish than with accession of Mary he became Chancellor the French.

of Scotland, and distinguished himself by Bear-pit,

a deep, open pit with perpen- his zeal in persecuting members of the

", dicular walls, built in a 200- Reformed party, among the rest the logical garden for keeping bears, and famous Protestant preacher George Wishhaving in the center a pole in which they art, whose sufferings at the stake he may exercise their climbing powers. viewed from his window with apparent Bear River,

a river of the United exultation. At length a conspiracy was

· States, 400 miles long; formed against him, and he was assassinrises in the north of Utah, and flows ated at his own castle of St. Andrews, northward into Idaho; turns abruptly on the 29th May, 1546. His private char. southward, re-enters Utah, and empties acter was fiercely attacked by his enemies. into Great Salt Lake.

Beatrice (bē'a-trēs), a city of Gage Bear's Grease, teement as beingreat south of Lincoln. It is a railroad center, the fat of bears, es

county, Nebraska, 43 miles efficacy in nourishing and promoting the and has important brick, flour, iron and growth of hair. The unguents sold under other works. Pop. (1920) 9661. this name, however, are in a great meas- Beatrice Portinari (bā-d-trē'cha ure made of hog's lard or veal fat, or a

por-té-nä're), mixture of both, scented and slightly the poetical idol of Dante; born about colored.

1266; died in 1290; the daughter of a Beas (bē’as), a river of India. See wealthy citizen of Florence, and wife of Bias.

Simone de' Bardi. She was but eight Beat (bēt), in music, the beating or years of age, and Dante nine, when he

pulsation resulting from the met her first at the house of her father. joint vibrations of two sounds of the same He altogether saw ber only once or twice, strength, and all but in unison. Also a and she probably knew little of him. short shake or transient grace-note struck The story of his love is recounted in the immediately before the note it is intended Vita Nuova, which was mostly written to ornament.

after her death. Beatification (bē-at-i-fi-kā’shun), in Beattie (be'ti), JAMES, a Scottish

poet and miscellaneous writer; the Roman Catholic born at Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, Church, an act by which the pope declares 1735; died, 1803. In 1760 he published a a person beatified or blessed after his volume of poems, which he subsequently death. It is the usual preliminary to endeavored to buy up, considering them canonization, that is, the raising one to unworthy of him. In 1765 he published a the honor and dignity of a saint. Canon- poem, the Judgment of Paris, and in 1775 ization, however, does not necessarily fol. bis celebrated Essay on Truth, for which low. All certificates or attestations of the University of Oxford conferred on him virtues and miracles, the necessary quali- the degree of LL.D.; and George III honfications for saintship, are examined by ored him, when on a visit to London, with the Congregation of Rites. This examina- a private conference and a pension. He tion often continues for several years; next published in 1771 the first book of after which his holiness dearees the his poem the Minstrel, and in 1774 the beatification, and the image and relics of second: this is the poly work by which





Beauharnais, Leuchtenberg,


he is now remembered. In 1776 he pub- ret, on the Loire, of some historical ins lished Dissertations on Poetry and Music, terest. General Chanzy was defeated Laughter and Ludicrous Composition, here by the Grand-duke of Mecklenburg, etc. ; in 1783 Dissertations, Moral and 7th-8th December, 1870. Pop. 2993. Critical; in 1786 Evidences of the Chris- Beauharnais (bo-ar-nă),

ALEXAN lian Religion.

VISCOUNT, Beatty almiral,

son of Captain D. L. Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, who

(bē'ti), SIR DAVID, a British born in 1760 in Martinique. He married Beatty, of Borodale, Wexford, Ireland, was afterwards the wife of Napoleon. born in 1871. He commanded the First At the breaking out of the French revolu. Battle Squadron in the European war; tion he was chosen a member of the Naand for his valiant service in the Jutland tional Assembly, of which he was for battle (q. v.) was made a Knight Con- some time president. In 1792 he was mander of the Royal Victorian Order;

He G.C.B. in 1916; G.C.V.O. in 1917. He general of the army of the Rhine. was commander of the Grand Fleet from the surrender of Mainz, and was sen

was falsely accused of having promoted 1916. He entered the navy in 1884; tenced to the guillotine, 'July 23, 1794. Commander in 1898; Rear-Admiral,

EUGÈNE DE, Duke of 1910; Vice-Admiral, 1915.


of Eichstädt, and Viceroy of Italy, during Beatty, Bucks County,

Pa., Dec. 19. died at Munich'in 1824. He was the son 1749; was graduated at Princeton in of Alexandre Beauharnais and Joséphine, 1769; studied medicine; became a colonel afterwards wife of Napoleon and Emin the Pennsylvania line; and in 1778–80 press of France. After his father's death he was commissary-general of prisoners. he joined Hoche in La Vendée and subHe was a delegate in the Congress of the sequently studied for a time in Paris. Confederation, 1783–85, and of the na- He accompanied Napoleon to Egypt in tional Congress, 1793–95. He was Secre- 1798; rose rapidly in the army; was aptary of State for New Jersey for ten pointed viceroy of Italy in 1805 ; and years—1795–1805. He died at Trenton, married daughter of the King of N. J., April 30, 1826.

Bavaria in 1806. He administered the Beaucaire (bő-kār), a small,. well, government of Italy with great prudence

built, commercial city of and moderation, and was much beloved by southern France, dep. Gard, on the his subjects. In the Russian campaign Rhone opposite Tarascon, with which it he commanded the third corps d'armée, communicates by a fine suspension-bridge, and greatly distinguished himself. To It is chiefly famous for its great fair him and to Ney France was mainly in(founded in 1217), held yearly during the debted for the preservation of the remains middle of July. Pop. 7284.

of her army during the retreat from Mos

After the battle of Lützen of May Beauchamp (boshin), ALPHONSE DE 2, 1813, where, by surrounding the right publicist, born at Monaco in_1767; died of the day, he went to Italy, which he at Paris in 1832. Under the Directory he defended against the Austrians until the had the surveillance of the press, a posi- deposition of Napoleon. After the fall of tion which supplied him with materials Napoleon he concluded an armistice, by for his History of La Vendée. He con• which be delivered Lombardy and all tributed to the Moniteur and the Gazette Upper Italy to the Austrians. He then de France. Among his chief works are went immediately to Paris, and thence to the History of the Conquest of Peru, the his father-in-law at Munich, where he History of Brazil, and the Life of Louis afterwards resided. His sister HORXVIII. The Mémoires of Fouché is also TENSE EUGÉNIE, Queen of Holland, was with good reason ascribed to him.

born in 1783, died in 1837. She became Beaufort (bo'fort), Henry, cardinal, Queen of Holland by marrying Louis

natural of John of Bonaparte, and after Louis's abdication Gaunt and half-brother of Henry IV, of the throne she lived apart from him, king of England, born 1377, died 1447 ; She wrote several excellent songs, and was made Bishop of Lincoln, whence he composed some deservedly popular airs, was transferred to Winchester. He re- among others the well-known Partant peatedly filled the office of lord-chancellor, pour la Syrie. Napoleon III was her and took part in all the most important third and youngest son. political movements of his times.

Beaumarchais (bô-mär-shă), PIERRE Beaugency (bo-zbån-sē), an ancient

AUGUSTIN CABON town, France, dep. Loi- DE, a French wit and dramatist, was born





at Paris in 1732; died in 1799. He was Woman Hater, produced in 1606–7, is the the son of a watchmaker named Caron, earliest work known to exist in which he whose trade he practised for a time. He had a hand. It does not appear that be sarly gave striking proofs of his mechan. was ever married. He died in London ical and also of his musical talents; at- of the plague, August, 1625, and was tained proficiency as a player on the buried at St. Saviour's, Southwark. The guitar and harp, and was appointed harp- friendship of Beaumont and Fletcher, like master to the sisters of Louis XV. By their literary partnership, was singularly & rich marriage (after which he added close; they lived in the same house, and de Beaumarchais to his name) he laid are said to have even had their clothes the foundation of the immense wealth in common. The works that pass under which he afterwards accumulated by his their names consist of over fifty plays, a speculations, and which was also in- masque, and some minor poems. It is creased by a second marriage. In the believed that all the minor poemas except meautiine he occupied himself with litera- one were written by Beaumont. After ture, and published two dramas-Eu- the death of Beaumont, Fletcher congénie in 1767 and Les Deus Amis in tinued to write plays alone or with other 1770. He first really distinguished him- dramatists. It is now difficult, if not in. self by his Mémoires (Paris, 1774), or deed impossible, to determine with cer. statements in connection with a lawsuit, tainty the respective shares of the two which by their wit, satire, and liveliness poets in the plays passing under their entertained all France. The Barber of names. According to the testimony of Seville (1775) and the Marriage of Fi- some of their contemporaries Beaumont garo (1784) have given him a permanent possessed the deeper and more thoughtful reputation. His last work was Mes Six genius, Fletcher the gayer and more Époques, in which he relates the dangers idyllic. Among their dramas are The to which he was exposed in the revolu- Maid's Tragedy, Philaster, Cupid's Retion. At the opening of the American renge, etc. The Masque of the Inner Revolution he made, as the secret agent Temple was written by Beaumont alone. of the French government, a contract to The Faithful Shepherdess and others by supply the colonies with arms and am. Fletcher alone. munition. He lost about a million livres Beaumont,

a city, capital of Jeffer

son Co.,, Texas, 84 miles (1785), and still more at the end of E. by. N. of Houston : has shingle, saw, 1792 by his attempt to provide the French and rice mills, oil refineries and iron and army with 60,000 muskets. He was a steel plants, etc. The lumber industry is singular instance of versatility of talent, important, and there are large oil wells being at once an artist, politician, finan- and iron ore in the vicinity. The govern. cier, and dramatist.

ment provision of a 26-foot ship channel Beaumaris (bū-ma'ris), seaport makes the city an important inland port. of Anglesey, on the Nienai Strait. It is a Beaumont, anciento family in Lei

town, North Wales, Isle Pop. (1910) 20,640; (1920) 40,422. favorite watering-place, and contains the remains of a castle built by Edward I cestershire in 1753, died in 1827. He wag about 1295. Pop. 2233.

a landscape-painter, but was noted more Beaumont (bo'mont), FRANCis, and as a patron of the arts interested in the

FLETCHER, Joun, two establishment of the National Gallery. minent English dramatic writers, con: Beaumont, SIR JOHN; born in 1582 temporaries of Shakespere, and the most

died in 1628 of famous of literary partners. The former, Francis Beaumont the dramatist; pub: son of a common pleas judge, was born lished Bosworth Field, historical at Grace-Dieu, in Leicestershire, in 1584 ; poem. He also wrote a poem in eight died in 1616, and was buried in West- books, never printed, called The Crown minster Abbey. At the age of sixteen he of Thorns. published a translation, in verse, of Ovid's


ВАР. fable of Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, Beaumont (bô-mon");

TISTE ELIE DE (1798and before nineteen became the friend of 1875), French geologist; taught geology Ben Jonson. With Fletcher also he was in the Ecole des Mines and Collège de early on terms of friendship. He married France, was elected to the Academy in Ursula, daughter of Henry Isley of Sun- 1835, and became in 1856 its perpetual dridge, in Kent, by whom he left two secretary. With Dufrénoy he prepared daughters.—JOHN FLETCHER was born a great geological map of France (1840; at Rye, Sussex, in 1579. His father was 2d Ed. 1855). successively dean of Peterborough, bishop Beaumont, surgeon, 'bon in 1785:

WILLIAM, an American of Bristol, Worcester, and London. The





died in 1853. His experiments on diges- ing a standard on the vall, seized it and tion with the Canadian St. Martin, who hurled him to the ground. The banner is lived for years after receiving a gunshot said to be preserved, and an annual prowound in the stomach which left an cession of young girls commemorates the aperture of about two inches in diam. deed. Manufactures: tapestry and careter, were of great importance to physio- pets, trimmings, woolen cloth, cottons, etc. logical science.

Pop. 17,045. Beaune (bon),, a town, France, dep: Beaux (bo), CECILIA, an American Côte d'Or, 23 miles 8. s. w. of

painter (1863- ), born at Dijon, well built, with handsome medi. Philadelphia. She was awarded the Mary eval church, a large library, museum, etc., Smith prize, given by the Pa. Academy of and a trade in the fine Burgundy and Fine Arts, four times. She won the other wines of the district. Pop. 11.668. Dodge prize of the National Academy of Beaune (bon), FLORIMOND, a distin. Design and many other honors.

guished mathematician and Beaver (bē'vėr), a rodent quadruped, friend of Descartes, born at Blois in

about 2 feet in length exclu1601; died at the same place in 1652. sive of the tail, genus Castor (C. fiber), He may be regarded as the founder of at one time common in northern Europe the integral calculus. Beauregard (bő-ré-gård), PIERRE GUS

TAVE TOUTANT, a general of the Confederate troops in the American Civil war, born in 1818 near New Orleans. He studied at the military academy, West Point, and left it as artillery lieutenant in 1838. He served in the Mexican war, and on the outbreak of the Civil war joined the Confederates. He commanded at the bombardment of Fort Sumter, gained the battle of Bull FT Run, lost that of Shiloh, assisted in the defense of Charleston, and surrendered with Johnston's forces in April, 1865. He died Feb. 20, 1893. Beausobre (bo-so-br), Isaac, born in

Beaver (Castor Canadensis) 1659 at Niort, in France; died at Berlin in 1738. In 1683 he be- and Asia. An allied species (O. Canacame Protestant minister of Chatillon-sur. densis) is found in considerable numbers Indre, but was compelled by persecution only in North America, living in colonies; to go into exile in 1685. In 1694 he be- c. fiber, occurring solitary, in Central came minister to French Protestants at Europe and Asia. It has short ears, a Berlin. He enjoyed much of the favor blunt nose, small forefeet, large webbed both of Frederick William 1 and of the hind feet, with a flat ovate tail covered with crown prince, afterwards Frederick the scales on its upper surface. It is valued Great. His most important work is the for its fur, which used to be largely emHistoire Critique de Manichée et du Man- ployed in the manufacture of hats, but for ichéisme (1734). Beauty, THE BEAUTIFUL. See ÆsBeauvais (bo-vă; ancient Bcllova

cum), a town of France, capital of the department of Oise, at the confluence of the Avelon with the Thérain, 43 miles north of Paris, poorly built, but with

fine edifices, the choir of the uncompleted cathedral being of the finest speci. mens of Gothic architecture in France. Beauvais is a very old town, dating back to the Roman period. In 1472 it resisted a large army of Burgundians under

Types of Beaver Charles the Bold. On this occasion the which silk is now for the most part subwomen particularly distinguished them- stituted, and for an odoriferous secretion selves, and one of them, Jeanne Lainé, named castor, at one time in high repute, called' La Hachette, seeing a soldier plant and still largely used in some parts of the





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