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WINSTON'S CUOSE-ALEXE ENCYCLOPEDIA

VOLUME II

Bay of Islands, a large, deep, and stimulating

and is used for toilet purposes safe harbor on the and as a liniment in various affections. N. E. coast of the N. Island of New Zea: Bay-salt,

a general term for coarseland. It is claimed to have been the seat

grained salt, but properly of the first European settlement in New applied to salt obtained by spontaneous Zealand. Also a large bay formed by the or natural evaporation of sea-water in Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the west coast large, shallow tanks or bays. of Newfoundland.

Bay-window,

a window forming a Bayonet (ba'o-net), a straight, sharp

recess or bay in a pointed weapon, generally room projecting outtriangular, intended to be fixed upon the wards, and rising muzzle of a rifle or musket, which is thus from the ground or transformed into a thrusting weapon : basement on a plan probably invented about 1640, in Bayonne. rectangular, semiAbout 1690 the bayonet began to be fas- octagonal, or semitened by means of a socket to the outside hexagonal, but alof the barrel, instead of being inserted as ways straight-sided. formerly in the inside. A variety of the The term is, however, bayonet, called the sword-bayonet, is now also often employed pretty widely used in modern armies, sev- to designate a boweral modifications of the arm being in use window, which more among the armies of the different nations. properly forms the Bayonne (bāzyon'), a well-built for segment of a circle,

tified town, the largest in and an oriel-window, the French dep. Basses-Pyrénées, at the which is supported confluence of the Nive and the Adour, on a kind of bracket, about 3 miles from their mouth in the and is usually on the Bay of Biscay; with a citadel command- first floor.

Bay-window. ing the harbor and city, a cathedral—a Baza (bästhä), an old town of Spain, beautiful ancient building-shipbuilding

Andalusia, prov. of Granada, and other industries, and a considerable formerly a large and Hourishing city. In trade, the hams of Bayonne being in much 1810 the French, under Marshal Soult, request. Pop. 27,900.

here defeated the Spaniards in a decisivé Bayonne, a city of Hudson Co., New battle. Pop. 15,964.

Jersey, about 6 miles s. w. Bazaar. of New York City. Its geographical posi

See Bazar. țion between New York and Newark Bays Bazaine (bå-zān), FRANCOIS ACHILLE, is favorable for manufacturing. Products

a French general, born in include boilers, cables, machinery, copper, 1811. He served in Algeria, in Spain brass, iron, launches, boats, petroleum, against the Carlists, in the Crimean war, sulphur, edible oils, essential oils. Popr. and joined the Mexican expedition as gen(1910) 55,545; (1920) 76,754.

eral of division in 1862, and in 1864 was Bayou (bā’yö), in the Southern United made

a marshal of France.

He comStates, a stream which flows manded the third army corps in the from a lake or other stream: frequently Franco-German war, when he capitulated used as synonymous with creek or tidal at Metz, after a seven weeks' siege, with channel.

an army of 175,000 men. For this act he Bayreuth (bl’roit). See Baireuth.

was tried by court-martial in 1873, found

guilty of treason, and condem ed to death. Bay Rum,

tilling the leaves of Myr- years' seclusion in the Isle St. Marguerite, cia acris, or other West Indian trees of from which he escaped. Died at Madrid the same genus. It is astringent and in 1888.

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Bazar

Beaconsfield

a

Bazar ba-zár”), F. Bazaar in the Beaches (bēch'es), RAIBED, a term East an exchange, market-place,

applied to those long teror place where goods are exposed for sale, raced level pieces of land, consisting of usually consisting of small shops or stalls sand and gravel, and containing marine in a narrow street or series of streets. shells, now, it may be, a considerable disThese bazar-streets are frequently sbaded tance above and away from the sea, but by a light material laid from roof to roof, bearing sufficient evidences of having and sometimes are arched over. Marts for been at one time sea-beaches. In Scot. the sale of miscellaneous articles, chiefly land such a terrace has been traced ex. fancy goods, are now to be found in most tensively along the coasts at about 25 European cities bearing the name of feet above the present sea-level. bazar8. The term bazar is also applied Beachy Head (bē'chi). promonto a sale of miscellaneous articles, mostly

tory in the south of of fancy work, and contributed gratuit. England, on the coast of Sussex, rising ously, in furtherance of some charitable 575 feet above sea-level, with a revolving or other purpose.

light, visible in clear weather from a disBazarjik bazar:jēk"), town of tance of 28 miles. A naval battle took Silistria. Has an important annual fair, French fleet under Tourville defeated an Pop. about 11,000.

English and Dutch combined feet under Bazigars arzig 1:8), & tribe of Lord Torrington.

East Indians dispersed Beacon (bē’kon), an object visible to throughout the whole of Hindustan mostly

some distance, and serving to in wandering tribes. They are divided notify the presence of danger; commonly into seven castes; their chief occupation applied to a fire-signal set on a height to is that of jugglers, acrobats, and tumblers, spread the news of hostile invasion or in which both males and females are other great event; and also applied to a equally skillful. They present many fea- mark or object of some kind placed contures analogous to the gypsies of Europe. spicuously on a coast or over a rock or Bazoche (ba-zosh'), or BasOCHE (a shoal at sea for the guidance of vessels,

corruption of Basilica), a often an iron structure of considerable brotherhood formed by the clerks of the height. parliament of Paris said to have origin: Beacon,

a city of Dutchess Co., N. Y.,

on the Hudson River, 59 miles vocates. They had a king, chancellor, and n. of New York. In 1913 the villages of other dignitaries; and certain privileges Matteawan and Fishkill Landing were were granted them by Philip the Fair consolidated and incorporated as Beacon early in the fourteenth century, as also City. Pop. (1920) 10,996. by subsequent monarchs. They had an Beaconsfield (bēʻkonz feld), a

village annual festival, having as a principal

of Buckingham, EngSeatrical Allusions were freely made to Beaconsfield, EARL OF, an eminent feature dramatic performances in which land, burial place of Edmund Burke.

DISRAELI, passing events. The representation of these farces or satires was frequently in- Erçlish statesman and novelist, of Jewterdicted, but their development had a ish extraction ; eldest son of Isaac D'Isconsiderable effect on the dramatic litera- raeli, author of the Curiosities of Liter. ature of France.

ature; was born in London December 21, Bdellium (del'i-um), aromatic 1804. He attended for some time a pri

gum resin brought chiefly vate school, and was first destined for tho from Africa and India, in pieces of dif- law, but showing a decided taste for litferent sizes and figures, externally of a erature he was allowed to follow his indark reddish brown, internally clear, and clination. In 1826 he published Vivian not unlike glue. To the taste it is slightly Grey, his first novel; and subsequently bitterish and pungent; its odor is agree- traveled for some time, visiting Italy, able. It is used as a perfume and a medi- Greece, Turkey, and Syria, and gaining cine, being a weak deobstruent. Indian experiences which were afterwards reprobdellium is the produce of Balsamoden- duced in his books. His travels and im. dron Roxburghii; African of B. Afri, pressions are embodied in a volume of canum; Egyptian bdellium is obtained letters addressed to his sister and his from the doum palm; and Sicilian is pro- father. In 1831 another povel, Tho duced by Daucus gummifer, a species of Young Duke, came from his pen. It was the genus to which the carrot belongs. followed at short intervals by Contarini The bdellium mentioned in Gen., ii, was Fleming, Alroy, Henrietta Temple, Vene apparently a precious stone, perhaps a tia, The Revolutionary Epic (a poem), pearl.

etc. In 1832, and on two subsequent

an

Beaconsfiela

Bead-snake

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occasions, he appeared as candidate for chancellor of the exchequer. They im. the representation of High Wycombe, mediately brought in, and carried, after with a program which included vote by a violent and bitter struggle, a Reform ballot and triennial parliaments, but was Bill on the basis of household suffrage. unsuccessful. His political opinions In 1868 he became premier on the resig. gradually changed : in 1835 he unsuccess- nation of Lord Derby, but his tenure of fully contested Taunton as a Tory. In office was short. In 1874 he again be1837 he gained an entrance to the House came prime-minister with a strong Conof Commons, being elected for Maidstone, servative majority, and he remained in His first speech in the house was treated power for six years. This period was with ridicule; but he finished with the marked by his elevation to the peerage in prophetic declaration that the time would 1876 as Earl of Beaconsfield, and by the come when they would hear him. During prominent part he took in regard to the his first years in parliament he was a Eastern question and the conclusion of the supporter of Peel; but when Peel pledged Treaty of Berlin in 1878. In 1880 parhimself to abolish the corn-laws, Disraeli liament was rather suddenly dissolved, became the leader of the protectionists. and the new parliament showing an over. About this time he became a leader of whelming Liberal majority, be resigned what was known as the Your: Eng. office, though he still retained the leaderland' party, professing a sort of senti- ship of his party. Within a few months

of his death the publication of a novel called Endymion (his last preceding, La thair, had been published ten years be. fore) showed that his intellect was still vigorous. Among others of his writings besides those already mentioned are: A Vindication of the English Constitution, 1834; Alarcos, a Tragedy, 1839; and Lord George Bentinck, a Political Biography, 1852. He died April 19, 1881. Bead (bēd), originally a prayer; then

a small perforated ball of gold, pearl, amber, glass, or the like, to be strung on a thread, and used in a rosary by Roman Catholics in numbering their prayers, one bead being passed at the end of each ejaculation or short prayer; latterly any such small ornamental body. Glass beads are now the most common sort; they form a considerable item in

the African trade.-In architecture and Lord Beaconsfield.

joinery the bead is a small round mold

ing. It is of frequent occurrence in mental advocacy of feudalism. This architecture, particularly in the classical spirit showed itself in his two novels of styles, and is used in picture frames and Toningsby and Sybil, published. respect other objects carved in wood.–St. Cuthively, in 1844 and 1845. Having acquired bert's Beads, the popular name of the dethe manor of Hughenden in Buckingham- tached and perforated joints of encrinites. shire, he was in 1847, elected for thiş Beadle (bē’dl), an officer in a univer: county, and he retained his seat till raised

sity, whose chief business is to to the peerage nearly thirty years later. walk with a mace in a public proces. His first appointment to office was in sion; also, a parish officer whose business 1852, when he became chancellor of the is to punish petty offenders, and a church exchequer under Lord Derby. The fol- officer with various subordinate duties, lowing year, however, the ministry was as waiting on the clergyman, keeping defeated. He remained out of office till order in church, attending meetings of 1858, when he again became chancellor vestry or session, etc. of the exchequer, and brought in a reform Bead-snake (Elaps fulvius), a beaqbill which wrecked the government. Dur.

tiful snake of North ing the time the Palmerston government America, inhabiting cultivated grounds, was in office Mr. Disraeli led the opposi. especially plantations of the sweet-potato, tion in the lower house with conspicuous and burrowing in the ground. It is ability and courage. In 1866 the Lib- finely marked with yellow, carmine, and erals resigned, and Derby and Disraeli black. Though it possesses poison-fangs came into power, the latter being again it never seems to use them.

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Beagle

Bear

Beam (bēm),

mam

Beagle (bē'gl); a small hound, for- St. Ignatius's bean is not really a bean,

merly kept to hunt hares, now but the seed of a large climbing shrub, almost superseded by the harrier, which of the order Loganiaceæ, nearly allied to sometimes is called by its name. The the species of Strychnos which produces beagle is smaller than the barrier, com- nux vomica. pactly built, smooth-haired, and with pen. Bean-goose (Anser segětum), a spe.

. little larger than the lap-dog.

gratory bird which arrives in Britain in long straight and autumn and retires to the north in the strong piece of wood, iron, or end of April, though some few remain to steel, especially when holding an impor- breed. Being rather smaller than the tant place in some structure, and serving common wild goose, it is sometimes called for support or consolidation ; often equiv- the small gray goose. alent to girder. Jo a balance it is the Bean-king, the person chosen king in are suspended. In a loom it is a cylin- in virtue of having got the piece of cake drical piece of wood on which weavers containing the bean buried in the cake wind the warp before weaving; also, the for this purpose. cylinder on which the cloth is rolled as Bear (bār), the name of several large it is woven. In a ship one of the strong

plantigrade carnivorous transverse pieces stretching across from mals of the genus Ursus. They belong to one side to the other to support the decks the canine branch of carnivores, the dog and retain the sides at their proper dis- and the bear having a common ancestor, tance: hence a ship is said to be on her Amphicyon of the Miocene Age. Like the beam ends' when lying over on her side. dog they have forty-two teeth, but the Beam-tree (Pyrus aria), a tree of the dental development differs from that of mountain-ash, and service-tree, having cialized for the mastication of animal food berries that are edible when quite mel. and more adapted for grinding miscellow, and yielding a hard and fine-grained laneous soft food, such as fruit, roots, wood, used for axle-trees and other pur. bears are expert at climbing, though the

puts, honey, insects, etc. Most of the poses. Bean (bēn), a name given to several adult grizzly bear is said to have lost

kinds of leguminous Seeds and the plants producing them, probably originally belonging to Asia. They belong to several genera, particularly to Faba, garden and field bean; Phaseolus, French or kidney bean; and Dolichos, tropical bean. The common bean (F. vulgāris) is cultivated both in fields and gardens as food for man and beast. There are many varieties in gardens, and the horse or tick bean in fields. The soil that best suits is a strong, rich loam. The seed of the Windsor is fully an inch in diameter; the horse-bean is much less, often not much more than half an inch in length and three-eighths of an inch in diameter.

Brown Bear (Ursus arctos). Beans are very nutritious, containing 36 per cent of starch and 23 per cent of this power. The bear family is of wide nitrogenous matter called legumin, anal- distribution geographically, its range emogous to the casein in cheese. The bean bracing the high and low latitudes of the is an annual, from 2 to 4 feet high. The two hemispheres. In the Arctic regions flowers are beautiful and fragrant. The the white or polar bear (Ursus maritikidney-bean, French bean, or haricot is mus) is found. It is yellowish-white in the Phaseolus vulgāris, a well-known cul- color and long in body and neck, also in inary vegetable. There are two principal the length of head, its cranial development varieties, annual dwarfs and runners. differing considerably in this respect from "The beans cultivated in America and other species. It is fierce in disposition, largely used as articles of food belong an adept swimmer, getting its food printo the genus Phaseolus. The scarlet-run- cipally from the sea, and is altogether ner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus), a native carnivorous. The great brown bear Ur. of Mexico, is cultivated on account of its sus arctos) inhabits northern Europe and long rough pods and its scarlet flowers. Asia. its range extending from Siberia

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