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WINSTON'S

CUMULATIVE

LOOSE-LEAF ENCYCLOPEDIA

VOLUME II

Bay of Islands, a large, deep, and stimulating and is used for toilet purposes N. E. coast of the N. Island of New Zea- Bay-salt, grained salt, but properly

on the as a in various

term

land. It is claimed to have been the seat

of the first European settlement in New applied to salt obtained by spontaneous Zealand. Also a large bay formed by the or natural evaporation of sea-water in Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the west coast large, shallow tanks or bays. of Newfoundland.

Bayonet (bao-net), a straight, sharp- Bay-window, a window forming a

recess

or bay in a

pointed weapon, generally room projecting outtriangular, intended to be fixed upon the wards, and rising muzzle of a rifle or musket, which is thus from the ground or transformed into a thrusting weapon: basement on a plan probably invented about 1640, in Bayonne. rectangular, semiAbout 1690 the bayonet began to be fas- octagonal, or semitened by means of a socket to the outside hexagonal, but alof the barrel, instead of being inserted as ways straight-sided. formerly in the inside. A variety of the The term is, however, bayonet, called the sword-bayonet, is now also often employed pretty widely used in modern armies, sev- to designate a boweral modifications of the arm being in use window, which more among the armies of the different nations. properly forms the

segment of a circle,
and an oriel-window,
which is supported
on a kind of bracket,
and is usually on the
first floor.

Bayonne (ba-yōn'), a well-built for-
tified town, the largest in
the French dep. Basses-Pyrénées, at the
confluence of the Nive and the Adour,
about 3 miles from their mouth in the
Bay of Biscay; with a citadel command-
Bay-window.
ing the harbor and city, a cathedral-a Baza (bä'thä), an old town of Spain,
beautiful ancient building-shipbuilding
Andalusia, prov. of Granada,
and other industries, and a considerable formerly a large and flourishing city. In
trade, the hams of Bayonne being in much 1810 the French, under Marshal Soult,
request. Pop. 27,900.
here defeated the Spaniards in a decisive
battle. Pop. 15,964.
Bazaar.

Bayonne, a city of Hudson Co., New

Bazaine

Jersey, about 6 miles s. w. of New York City. Its geographical position between New York and Newark Bays is favorable for manufacturing. Products include boilers, cables, machinery, copper, brass, iron, launches, boats, petroleum, sulphur, edible oils, essential oils. Pop. (1910) 55,545; (1920) 76,754. Bayou (ba'yö), in the Southern United made a marshal of France. States, a stream which flows from a lake or other stream: frequently used as synonymous with creek or tidal channel.

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See Bazar.

(ba-zan), FRANCOIS ACHILLE, a French general, born in 1811. He served in Algeria, in Spain against the Carlists, in the Crimean war, and joined the Mexican expedition as general of division in 1862, and in 1864 was He commanded the third army corps in the Franco-German war, when he capitulated at Metz, after a seven weeks' siege, with an army of 175,000 men. For this act he was tried by court-martial in 1873, found guilty of treason, and condemned to death. This sentence was commuted to twenty

Bayreuth (br'roit). See Baireuth.

Bay Rum, a spirit obtained. by dis

tilling the leaves of Myr- years' seclusion in the Isle St. Marguerite, cia acris, or other West Indian trees of from which he escaped. Died at Madrid the same genus. It is astringent and in 1888.

Bazar

Beaconsfield

Bazar (ba-zar'), or BAZAAR, in the Beaches (bech'es), RAISED, a term East an exchange, market-place, applied to those long ter or place where goods are exposed for sale, raced level pieces of land, consisting of usually consisting of small shops or stalls sand and gravel, and containing marine in a narrow street or series of streets. shells, now, it may be, a considerable disThese bazar-streets are frequently shaded tance above and away from the sea, but by a light material laid from roof to roof, bearing sufficient evidences of having and sometimes are arched over. Marts for been at one time sea-beaches. In Scotthe sale of miscellaneous articles, chiefly land such a terrace has been traced exfancy goods, are now to be found in most tensively along the coasts at about 25 European cities bearing the name of feet above the present sea-level.

bazars. The term bazar is also applied

to a sale of miscellaneous articles, mostly
of fancy work, and contributed gratuit-
ously, in furtherance of some charitable
or other purpose.

Bazarjik (ba-zar-jek'), a town of
Bulgaria, southeast of
Silistria. Has an important annual fair.
Pop. about 11,000.

Beachy Head (be'chi), a promon-
tory in the
England, on the coast of Sussex, rising
575 feet above sea-level, with a revolving
light, visible in clear weather from a dis-
tance of 28 miles. A naval battle took
place here, June 30, 1690, in which a
French fleet under Tourville defeated an
English and Dutch combined fleet under

Lord Torrington.
Beacon (be'kon), an object visible to
some distance, and serving to
notify the presence of danger; commonly
applied to a fire-signal set on a height to
spread the news of hostile invasion or
other great event; and also applied to a
mark or object of some kind placed con-
spicuously on a coast or over a rock or
shoal at sea for the guidance of vessels,
often an iron structure of considerable
height.
Beacon,

Bazigars ba-zi-gårs'), a tribe of
East Indians dispersed

throughout the whole of Hindustan mostly
in wandering tribes. They are divided
into seven castes; their chief occupation
is that of jugglers, acrobats, and tumblers,
in which both males and females are
equally skillful. They present many fea-
tures analogous to the gypsies of Europe.
Bazoche (ba-zosh'), or BASOCHE (a
corruption of Basilica), a
brotherhood formed by the clerks of the
parliament of Paris said to have origin-
ated among the class of procureurs or ad-
a city of Dutchess Co., N. Y.,
on the Hudson River, 59 miles
vocates. They had a king, chancellor, and N. of New York. In 1913 the villages of
other dignitaries; and certain privileges Matteawan and Fishkill Landing were
were granted them by Philip the Fair consolidated and incorporated as Beacon
early in the fourteenth century, as also City. Pop. (1920) 10,996.

by subsequent monarchs. They had an Beaconsfield (be'konz-feld), a village annual festival, having as a principal of Buckingham, Engfeature dramatic performances in which land, burial place of Edmund Burke. satirical allusions were freely made to Beaconsfield, ERI OF, an eminent BENJAMIN DISRAELI, passing events. The representation of these farces or satires was frequently interdicted, but their development had a considerable effect on the dramatic literaature of France.

English statesman and novelist, of Jewish extraction; eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli, author of the Curiosities of Literature; was born in London December 21, 1804. He attended for some time a private school, and was first destined for the law, but showing a decided taste for literature he was allowed to follow his inclination. In 1826 he published Vivian Grey, his first novel; and subsequently traveled for some time, visiting Italy, Greece, Turkey, and Syria, and gaining experiences which were afterwards reproduced in his books. His travels and impressions are embodied in a volume of letters addressed to his sister and his father. In 1831 another novel, The Young Duke, came from his pen. It was followed at short intervals by Contarini Fleming, Alroy, Henrietta Temple, Venetia, The Revolutionary Epic (a poem), etc. In 1832, and on two subsequent

Bdellium (del'i-um), an aromatic gum resin brought chiefly from Africa and India, in pieces of different sizes and figures, externally of a dark reddish brown, internally clear, and not unlike glue. To the taste it is slightly bitterish and pungent; its odor is agreeable. It is used as a perfume and a medicine, being a weak deobstruent. Indian bdellium is the produce of Balsamodendron Roxburghii; African of B. Africanum; Egyptian bdellium is obtained from the doum palm; and Sicilian is produced by Daucus gummifer, a species of the genus to which the carrot belongs. The bdellium mentioned in Gen., ii, was apparently a precious stone, perhaps a pearl.

Bead-snake

occasions, he appeared as candidate for chancellor of the exchequer. They imthe representation of High Wycombe, mediately brought in, and carried, after with a program which included vote by a violent and bitter struggle, a Reform ballot and triennial parliaments, but was Bill on the basis of household suffrage. ansuccessful. His political opinions In 1868 he became premier on the resiggradually changed: in 1835 he unsuccess- nation of Lord Derby, but his tenure of fully contested Taunton as a Tory. In office was short. In 1874 he again be1837 he gained an entrance to the House came prime-minister with a strong Conof Commons, being elected for Maidstone, servative majority, and he remained in His first speech in the house was treated power for six years. This period was with ridicule; but he finished with the marked by his elevation to the peerage in prophetic declaration that the time would 1876 as Earl of Beaconsfield, and by the come when they would hear him. During prominent part he took in regard to the his first years in parliament he was a Eastern question and the conclusion of the supporter of Peel; but when Peel pledged Treaty of Berlin in 1878. In 1880 parhimself to abolish the corn-laws, Disraeli liament was rather suddenly dissolved, became the leader of the protectionists. and the new parliament showing an overAbout this time he became a leader of whelming Liberal majority, be resigned what was known as the Young Eng- office, though he still retained the leaderland' party, professing a sort of senti- ship of his party. Within a few months of his death the publication of a novel called Endymion (his last preceding, Lo thair, had been published ten years before) showed that his intellect was still vigorous. Among others of his writings besides those already mentioned are: A Vindication of the English Constitution, 1834; Alarcos, a Tragedy, 1839; and Lord George Bentinck, a Political Biography, 1852. He died April 19, 1881. Bead (bed), originally a prayer; then a small perforated ball of gold, pearl, amber, glass, or the like, to be strung on a thread, and used in a rosary by Roman Catholics in numbering their prayers, one bead being passed at the end of each ejaculation or short prayer; latterly any such small ornamental body. Glass beads are now the most common sort; they form a considerable item in the African trade.-In architecture and joinery the bead is a small round molding. It is of frequent occurrence in architecture, particularly in the classical styles, and is used in picture-frames and other objects carved in wood.-St. Cuthbert's Beads, the popular name of the detached and perforated joints of encrinites. Beadle (be'dl), an officer in a university, whose chief business is to walk with a mace in a public procession; also, a parish officer whose business is to punish petty offenders, and a church officer with various subordinate duties, as waiting on the clergyman, keeping order in church, attending meetings of vestry or session, etc. Bead-snake (Elaps fulvius), a beautiful snake of North America, inhabiting cultivated grounds, especially plantations of the sweet-potato,

Lord Beaconsfield.

mental advocacy of feudalism. This spirit showed itself in his two novels of Coningsby and Sybil, published, respectively, in 1844 and 1845. Having acquired the manor of Hughenden in Buckinghamshire, he was in 1847 elected for this

county, and he retained his seat till raised to the peerage nearly thirty years later. His first appointment to office was in 1852, when he became chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Derby. The following year, however, the ministry was defeated. He remained out of office till 1858, when he again became chancellor of the exchequer, and brought in a reform bill which wrecked the government. During the time the Palmerston government was in office Mr. Disraeli led the opposition in the lower house with conspicuous and burrowing in the ground. It is ability and courage. In 1866 the Lib- finely marked with yellow, carmine, and erals resigned, and Derby and Disraeli black, Though it possesses poison-fangs came into power, the latter being again it never seems to use them.

Beaconsfield

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Beagle

Bear

Beagle (bel); a small bound, for--St. Ignatius's bean is not really a bean,

merly kept to hunt hares, now but the seed of a large shrub, almost superseded by the harrier, which of the order Loganiaceæ, nearly allied to sometimes is called by its name. The the species of Strychnos which produces beagle is smaller than the harrier, com- nux vomica. a spe

pactly built, smooth-haired, and with pen- Bean-goose (Anser id goose, a midulous ears. The of them are little larger than the lap-dog. Beam (bēm), long straight and strong piece of wood, iron, or steel, especially when holding an important place in some structure, and serving for support or consolidation; often equiv

a

gratory bird which arrives in Britain in autumn and retires to the north in the end of April, though some few remain to breed. Being rather smaller than the common wild goose, it is sometimes called the small gray goose.

alent to girder. In a balance it is the

Twelfth Night

Bean-king, the person chosen king in in virtue of having got the piece of cake containing the bean buried in the cake for this purpose.

poses.

part ends which the scales are suspended. In a loom it is a cylindrical piece of wood on which weavers wind the warp before weaving; also, the cylinder on which the cloth is rolled as Bear (bar), the name of several large it is woven. In a ship one of the strong plantigrade carnivorous mamtransverse pieces stretching across from mals of the genus Ursus. They belong to one side to the other to support the decks the canine branch of carnivores, the dog and retain the sides at their proper dis- and the bear having a common ancestor, tance: hence a ship is said to be on her Amphicyon of the Miocene Age. Like the beam ends' when lying over on her side. dog they have forty-two teeth, but the Beam-tree (Pyrus aria), a tree of the dental development differs from that of same genus as the apple, other carnivores in being less highly spemountain-ash, and service-tree, having cialized for the mastication of animal food berries that are edible when quite mel- and more adapted for grinding miscellow, and yielding a hard and fine-grained laneous soft food, such as fruit, roots, wood, used for axle-trees and other pur- bears are expert at climbing, though the nuts, honey, insects, etc. Most of the Bean (ben), a name given to several adult grizzly bear is said to have lost kinds of leguminous seeds and the plants producing them, probably originally belonging to Asia. They belong to several genera, particularly to Faba, garden and field bean; Phaseolus, French or kidney bean; and Dolichos, tropical bean. The common bean (F. vulgaris) is cultivated both in fields and gardens as food for man and beast. There are many varieties in gardens, and the horse or tick bean in fields. The soil that best suits is a strong, rich loam. The seed of the Windsor is fully an inch in diameter; the horse-bean is much less, often not much more than half an inch in length and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. Beans are very nutritious, containing 36 per cent of starch and 23 per cent of this power. The bear family is of wide nitrogenous matter called legumin, anal- distribution geographically, its range emogous to the casein in cheese. The bean bracing the high and low latitudes of the is an annual, from 2 to 4 feet high. The two hemispheres. In the Arctic regions flowers are beautiful and fragrant. The the white or polar bear (Ursus mariti kidney-bean, French bean, or haricot is mus) is found. It is yellowish-white in the Phaseolus vulgaris, a well-known cul- color and long in body and neck, also in inary vegetable. There are two principal the length of head, its cranial development varieties, annual dwarfs and runners. differing considerably in this respect from The beans cultivated in America and other species. It is fierce in disposition, largely used as articles of food belong an adept swimmer, getting its food printo the genus Phaseolus. The scarlet-run- cipally from the sea, and is altogether ner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus), a native carnivorous. The great brown bear Urof Mexico, is cultivated on account of its sus arctos) inhabits northern Europe and long rough pods and its scarlet flowers. Asia. its range extending from Siberia

Brown Bear (Ursus arctos).

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