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INTRODUCTION.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE is a fociety of Students, incorporated (13th Eliz.) by the name of the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars. This little Commonwealth consists of fixteen* Colleges or Societies, devoted to the study of learning and knowledge. All these Colleges or Halls have been founded since the beginning offEdward I. and are maintained by the endowments of their several Founders and Benefactors. Each College is a body corporate, and bound by its own Statutes; but is likewise controlled by the paramount laws of the University.

Each of the fixteen Colleges furnishes members both for the executive and legislative branch of its government. The place of assembly is the Senate-House.

All persons, who are Masters of Arts, or Doctors in either of the three faculties, viz. Divinity, Civil Law, or Physic, have votes in this assembly. The number of those who are entitled to the appellation of Members of the Senate, is at present about 940:

The Senate is divided into two Classes or Houses; which are denominated Regents or Non Regents. Masters of Arts, of less than five years standing, and Doctors of less than two, compose the Regent or Upper-House, or, as it is otherwise called, the White Hood House; from its members wearing their Hoods lined with white filk. All the rest constitute the Non Regent, or Lower-House, otherwise called the Black Hood House ; its members wearing black silk Hoods. But Doctors of more than two years standing, and the Public Orator of the University, may vote in either House, according to their pleasure.

The executive branch of the Univcility is committed to cer. tain Magistrates and Officers, all chosen by the Senate. They are in the following order :

A CHANCELLOR, who is the head of the whole University; and in him is placed the sole authority of governing power within the precincts, excepting matters of Felony. He is chosen by the body of the Senate, and is generally one of the prin. cipal nobility. The office is biennial, or tenable for such a length of time, beyond two years, as the tacit consent of the University may chuse to allow.

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* DOWNING COLLEGE, as being still unfounded, is omitted. + Colleges and Halls are here (unlike those at Oxford, ) synonimous; the Halls enjoying in every respect the same privileges as the Collegese

The first authentic charter is faid to be dated 15. Hen. III, and to be found among the records in the Tower.

A HIGH STEWARD, who has a special power to take the trial of scholars impeached of Felony within the limits of the University. He is allowed a deputy. A Vice ChancelLOR, who is always the head of some College or Hall, and is chosen annually, on the 4th of November, by the body of the Senate. His office, in the absence of the Chancellor, embraces the execution of the Chancellor's powers and go vernment of the University ; and, during his continuance in office, he acts as a magistrate for the Univerfity and County, -The Caput, which is annually chosen on the 12th of October, and consists of the Vice-Chancellor, a Doctor in each faculty, and in Macro of Arte, representatives of the Regent and Non Regent Houses.-Two PROCTORS, who are Peace Officers, and elected by the Regents annually on the 10th of November, They attend to the discipline and behaviour of the Students, search houses of ill-fame, and commit women of loose and abandoned character ; also, attend the congregations of the Senate, &c. &c. They must be Masters of Arts. Two MODERATORS, nominated by the Proctors, and appointed by a grace of the Senate ; who superintend the Exercises and Dispatations in Philosophy, and the Examina. tions for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Two TaxORS, who are chosen the same as the Proctors. They are appointed to regulate the markets, examine the aflize of bread, and the lawfulness of all weights and measures, Two SCRUTA TORS, who are Non Regents, and whose duty is to attend at all congregations, to read the graces in the lower house, to gather the votes, &c. A PUBLIC ORATOR, who is the voice of the Senate upon all public occasions, writes, reads, and records the letters to and from the Senate. and presents to all bonorary degrees with an appropriate speech. This is esteemed one of the most honourable offices in the gift of the University. A COMMISSARY, who is an officer under the Chancellor, an assistant or assessor to the Vice-Chancellor in his court. He also holds a court of record for all privileged persons and scho, lars under the degree of A, M. He is appointed by the Chancellor's letters patent. A Registrar-THREE ESQUIRE Bedells, whose office is to attend the Vice-Chancellor upon all public occafions, whom they precede with their filver maces -Two LIBRARIANS, to whom the regulations and management of the Public Library is confided.

* The jurisdiction of the UniverGity is a mile every way round, from any part of the suburbs.

+ Every University Grace must pass the Caput before it can be admitted into the Senate,

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Besides these, there are a number of inferior officers, who are appointed by the Vice-Chancellor, for the time being, and hold their offices for life ; such as School. keeper, Marshall, Bella ringer, Yeoman Bedell, &c,

There are two Courts of Law in this University, viz. the Confiftory Court of the Chancellor, and the Confiftory Court of the Commisary;

The Two Members, which the University sends to Par. liament, are chosen by the body of the Senate. The UNI VERSITY COUNCIL, are appointed by a Grace of the Se. nate, and are consulted upon various occasions. The Solso citor, is appointed by the Vict Chanctitor. The SINDICS, are members of the Senate, chosen to fuperintend the Buildings, Library, Printing, &c. The PROFESSORS of the different sciences have ftipends allowed from various sources ; Some from the University cheft, others from Government, or eftates left for that purpose.

The Terms of this University are three; viz. O&tober, or Michaelmas Term, begins on the joth of October, and ends on the 16th of December. Lent or January Term, begins January the 13th; and ends on the Friday before Palm Sunday. Easter, or Midsummer Term, begins on the Wednesday se'nnight after Éafter day, and ends on the Friday after commencement day. COMMENCEMENT Day is always the first Tuesday in July.

When a Member of the Senate dies within the University, during term, the University Bell rings an hour; from which period Non-term commences for three days.

The several orders in the different colleges are as follow :

1. A MASTER, or Head, who is generally a Doctor of Divinity ; excepting Trinity-Hall, where he is a Doctor of Laws; and Caius, where he may be a Doctor of Phyfic. The Head of Kings is ftiled Provoft ; of Queens, President.

2. Fellows, who generally are Bachelors of Divinity, Masters or Bachelors of Arts; some few are Bachelors of Law and Physic, as at Trinity Hall and Caius ; or Doctors of Law and Phyfic. 3.

NOBLEMEN, GRADUATES, DOCTORS in the feveral FACULTIES, BACHELORS of Divinity, (who have been A. M.) and MASTERS of Arts, are all Members of the Senate.

4. GRADUATES, who are not members of the Senate, are Bachelors of Divinity, denominated four-and-twenty-men, or Ten-year-men.

5. BACHELORS of Law and PHYSIC. 6. BACHELors of Arts. Some of these are called Bachee

lor Commoners, and are such as have been, while Under-gradu. ates, Fellow Commoners,

7. Fellow COMMONERS, who are generally the younger fons of the Nobility, or young men of fortune, and have the privilege of dining at the Fellows table, from whence the appellation poflibly originated. They are distinguished from the Penfoners and Scholars by their dress, which is ornamented with Gold or Silver.

8. PENSIONERS and SCHOLARS are nearly of the same order ; except that the latter, from the enjoyment of scholarships, read the graces in Hall, leffons in Chapel, &c.

9. Siz Ars are generally men of inferior fortune, though frequently by their merit they succeed to the highest honors

in the University Most of our church DIGNITARIES have been of this order.

The limits of this work will not allow us to give an account of the ceremonies, &c. of taking degrees, we shall therefore merely add some particulars concerning them. The Students are admitted to the different degrees according to their standing. The time required by the University statutes for studying, before they can be qualified for taking the several degrees, is as follows:

A Bachelor of Arts, must reside the greater part of twelve terms, the first and last excepted; there are invariably three terms in a year, therefore he must be a member four years. A Master of Arts, must have been a Bachelor of three years i standing; though not obliged to refide constantly during term as the former. A Bachelor of Divinity, must be a Master of Arts of seven years ftanding. A Doctor of Divinity, must be a Bachelor of Divinity of five, or A. M. of twelve years standing. A Bachelor of Laws, must be of fix years standing complete, and must keep the greater part of nine terms. A Doctor of Laws, must be a Bachelor of Laws of five years standing, or a Master of Arts of seven years standing. A Ba. chelor of Phyfic must keep the greater part of nine terms, and may be admitted any time in his sixth year. A Doctor of Physic the same as L. L. D. A Bachelor of Music must enter his name at some college, and compose a solemn piece of music, as an exercise, prior to his degree. A Doctor of Music is generally Mus. B, and his exercise is the same. Noblemen, or such as are entitled to honorary degrees, at two years standing, are as follow : -1. Privy Counsellors. 2. Bishops. 3. Noble. men, viz. Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons. 4. Sons of Noblemen, 5. Persons related to the King's Majesty by confanguinity or affinity : provided they be also honorable. 6. The eldest Sons of such persons, and Baronets and Knights, to the degree of A. M. only.

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The time for conferring the degrees of Masters of Arts, and Doctors of the several faculties, is at Commencement, which is always the first Tuesday in July. A Bachelor of Divinity takes his degree on the eleventh of June. The examination for the degree of Bachelor of Arts generally begins on the first Monday in Lent-term, and continues that, and the three following days; and on the Friday following they are admitted to their degrees. The number of Students who take their degrees at that time, is usually about a hundred.

UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE PRIZES.

The annual amount of Prizes for the encouragement of literature, free and open competition for the whole University, amounts to 3531. 55. viz. Mathematics 501. Claflics and English Composition 3031. 55.

The annual Prizes in the individual. Colleges, about 2861. two thirds of which are allowed for the encouragement of Class fical Literature.

CHANCELLOR'S PRIZES.

Two gold medals, value 15 guineas each, are given annually by the Chancellor of this University, to two commencing Bachelors of Arts, who having obtained Senior Oprimes ; acquit themselves the best in claflical learning. The subject is appointed by the Vice-Chancellor ; who, together with the Provost of King's, the masters of Trinity, St. John's, Christ's, Clare Hall, Peter-House, and the senior Fellow of Trinity, elected from Westminster school, examines the candidates, and adjudges the Prizes. When there is an equality of votes the V.C. decides.

MEMBERS? PRIZES. The Representatives in Parliament of this University give four annual Prizes, of 15 guineas each, which are adjudged by the Vice-Chancellor and heads of colleges, to two senior and two middle Bachelors of Arts, who fhall compofe the best Dis. sertations in Latin Prose; which are read publicly on a day appointed near to the Commencement.

SIR WILLIAM BROWNE's PRIZES. Sir William Browne, Knt. directed three gold medals, value 5 guineas each, to be given yearly to three Undergraduates on the Commencement day. The first to him that writes the best Greek Ode, in imitation of Sappho; the second for the best Latin Ode in imitation of Horace; the third for the best

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