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The JOURNAL of the
NATIONAL EDUCATION

ASSOCIATION

VOLUME XIII

JANUARY-December, 1924

( For index see page 356)

a leaflet known as the N. E. A. Bulletin. That bulletin developed
into the present JOURNAL. The last issue of the N. E. A. Bulletin is
Volume 9, Number 4, December, 1920. The first issue of the present
JOURNAL is Volume 10, Number 1, January, 1921. It should not be
confused with an earlier journal-a preprint from the Proceedings--that
was published from September, 1916, to May, 1919.

THE NATIONAL EDUCATION AssociATION OF THE UNITED STATES

1201 SIXTEENTH STREET NORTHWEST

WASHINGTON, D. C.

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Copyright MCMXXIV by Faye Jones, Denver, Colo.

D.S.
Printed in the U.S.A.
THE

HE TORCH OF FREEDOM will be welcomed by those desiring a new patriotic song. The words were written by Mrs.

Fern Evans Hoffman, and the music was composed by Miss Faye Jones. It was first sung at the Byers Junior High
School, Denver, Colorado, where Mrs. Hoffman and Miss Jones are teachers.

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Our National Association

The Classroom Element

T

OVER half a million chil

our

HE POWER of the National age or force them to remain on the firing tional workers to higher planes of proEducation Association to carry line when the time for retirement has fessional coöperation we cannot know, forward the torch of universal come.

but the force of the movement is sugpublic education depends upon its all- A generation ago the rank and file of gested by membership growth in the inclusiveness. America is divided more teachers did not see these things as they National Education Association from or less into class groups. Public educa- do now. Even those who were looked fewer than ten thousand to more than tion knows no class groups.

America to for leadership often lacked the vision. 130,000 in less than five years. has diverse races. Public education is Professional organizations were small. This great increase must of necessity no respecter of races. America has

have been among the rank and file many religions. Public education min

the classroom element. It is to that isters equally to them all. Our eco

branch of the service that this articlenomic and social life have been many

dren are in school part the fifth in the series on Our National times divided and subdivided by the

time for lack of room in school Association is given. Its point of view specializing processes of our time.

buildings. In many other re

has been gleaned from many letters from the eyes of the great basic public school

spects millions of children are

teachers working in all sections of the and public library every member of our

country and in all branches of the

denied an equal chance for lack varied society is equal—a liability if not

service. Let it be said at the start that grounded in the stabilizing elements of

of public support. Thousands

the Association's greatest service to the of teachers are pushed against common culture; an incalculable

individual teacher will always be service asset if his life is well-rooted in this com

the wall, struggling at low sal

shared in common by all other branches mon culture and quickened by the spark

aries and under unfavorable

of the profession. While we consider of inspiration into larger initiative and conditions. The ind i vid ua 1 the peculiar problems of special groups, originality.

teacher working alone can do let us bear in mind that the importance Education is therefore the basis of our little to remedy this situation, of the group is not measured by its size social pyramid, and the individual teach- but

many teachers
teachers pulling

or field of activity, but by its service to ers may be thought of as the foundation

shoulder to shoulder in local,

childhood and to the profession. stones upon which the vast structure is

State, and National associa

When the Association seeks greater erected. If the individual teacher is

tions can secure the adoption

recognition of education by the public, sound in life and training and ideals,

of remedial measures.

There

every teacher profits. When it labors every life that touches his is thereby

for improved training, securer tenure, sounder. If the individual teacher is

never was a greater challenge higher salaries, sound pension systems, soft and weak, the whole structure is

to the 700,000 teachers of the

and more adequate financial support, the thereby weakened. It is fitting then

Nation than now.

Association is rendering a service to the that those who seek to improve education

individual teacher. Services of this type endeavor to reach the rank and file of

during the last five years have been so teachers. They know that the social They worked under many limitations. substantial that were they adequately standing of the teacher is of high im- The philosophy of teaching and educa- appreciated, every one of the Nation's portance. Large appreciation of teach- tional administration that are bearing seven hundred thousand teachers would ing by the general public is needed to at- fruit in our day were then in their in- be eager to enlist in the ranks of protract the best young men and women fancy. It is not surprising that the fessional organization. The Association into the profession. They know that rank and file had not then been awak- would be able to use for other purposes training is necessary. The frontiers of ened to their professional duties and op- the money it now spends in seeking childhood must be held by safe guides: portunities. The spirit of democracy members. Members would seek the equipped with the keenest tools that the and the appetite for service, which are Association, determined to make their science of education can supply. They now such powerful forces in the lives of contribution and thus to share the comknow that tenure is important. Fear' increasing numbers of men and women, mon burdens and opportunities of its and uncertainty must not drain off were then less prevalent and compelling. invaluable work. energy that should go to the vital work People were more inclined to work Of the special services which the Asof teaching. They know that pensions alone. They had not then sensed, as sociation renders the classroom element are important. Teachers must give now, the joy and the infinite resources as such, perhaps the greatest is the work themselves wholly to their work during of common action guided by high mo- of the Department of Classroom Teachthe active years with full assurance that tives. How rapidly the leaven of this ers, which is leading in the movement society will not neglect them in old new spirit in our life will lift educa- to improve the professional status of the

--HO-HO!

HOW?

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TEAM WORK

SUCCESS!

com

our

director of the Division of Elementary brary workers who are truly teachers, “TEAMWORK"

School Service. Miss Winn came to and teachers in professional schools of

headquarters on February 15, 1922, every type also have a common oppor2 after winring wide recognition as a tunity in the National Education Asso

worker in classroom teachers' organiza- ciation. The college teacher is working tions and as a student of their problems. near the top of our educational pyramid Her work since that time is well known and needs contact and sympathy with by those who have been reached by her those who are laying the foundations. extensive correspondence, who have read The library worker builds where the her writings, or who have seen her work teacher leaves off. The teacher in the at the Association's annual meetings. professional school—even the worker in In addition to her duties as advisory the field of research-needs to be tied by officer of the Department of Classroom bonds of professional organization to the Teachers, Miss Winn represents other great body of educational workers whose

departments and committees at head- common task is to maintain the intel"LET'S PULL TOGETHER

quarters, assists and advises in various lectual level of the whole people as high other branches of work, and replies to as possible in order that there may be numerous calls from the field for health, efficiency, prosperity, and apprespecial help.

ciation of the finer and more important The professional movement among

things of life.
.

classroom teachers is still young. It has Our National Association is a
tremendous possibilities among every

mon tie that binds us, inspires us, gives teacher. Tremendous energy would group of teachers. The very fact of unity to our enterprises, makes come to the profession if teachers every- great numbers suggests the opportunity efforts count, enriches life with signifiwhere could live a vigorous professional

before the elementary-school group. . cance, lifts us to higher planes of enlife—if there could be frequent profes- The rapid growth of secondary schools, thusiasm and endeavor, and renders us sional and social contacts with fellow the fact that secondary school teachers true apostles of the Great Teacher who teachers; if there could be continuous work with a selected group of youth, proclaimed the Gospel of Service. The consideration by teachers in every school and the additional fact that specializa- classroom element, being the closest to and every community of the vital prob- tion increases in this field—all these growing life and being the most numerlems that spring from the day's work; constitute a challenge to teachers in ous element in the educational structure, if there could be more initiative and secondary schools to make their influence has the most to gain and the most to surer leadership among teachers by felt in professional organization and to give in the great program of professional teachers. All of these things the De- develop greater unity among themselves. organization. partment of Classroom Teachers is help- Teachers in normal schools and teaching to bring about.

ers' colleges are naturally interested in It was organized in July, 1913, and professional organization. They are reorganized under a new constitution at the builders of the profession. The Boston, in July, 1922. Membership things they believe in and work for have is open to all teachers who are members large influence with students soon to be of the National Education Association. teachers. There comes to such workers It holds annual meetings at the time of a natural following. It is fine for the the Association's meetings in July of profession as well as for the men and each year. It recognizes the worth of women in the schools from which the all other organizations of classroom profession springs, if this following can teachers and seeks to coöperate with continue when students become practhem. It brings to the National Asso- tising teachers. It is thus that influence ciation the counsel of a select group of is multiplied and put out at interest. teachers who have demonstrated their A young student was one day heard to devotion and capacity in the field of remark that the best advice his favorite professional work.

teacher in normal school had given him The Department has announced the was to join local, State, and National following aims: (1) To secure higher organizations at the very beginning of qualifications for teachers, (2) to assist his teaching career and to support them administrators in school problems, (3) and work in them and for them conto improve economic and social condi- sistently. Now teacher and former tions among teachers, (4) to promote,

year in professional

,

fender of public education in organizations of classroom teachers, (5) and experiences. Such opportunity to America, is an inspiration to those who to maintain unity among all who are give sound advice and such fellowship must do battle now in behalf of the enlisted in educational service. are among the glories of work in teacher

This picture was painted The Department of Classroom training institutions where material re- by J. Harvey Young and presented to Teachers is represented at Association wards are still far from adequate. the Salem (Massachusetts) Normal headquarters by Miss Agnes S. Winn, College and university teachers, li- School by the class of July, 1861.

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encourage, and assist local and State gatherings to share common enthusiasmas H RACE MANN, pioneer de

same cause.

towns

Educational Progress During 1923 the salaries of the teachers on the sched
Tof Educational progress is of unusually
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ule adopted in the past three or four HE survey teachers in the service is our chief ad- years.—Edward B. Sellew, superintend

vance for the year. Over ninety per ent of schools, Middletown. interest this year because of the strong cent of our teachers have normal school Delaware-The maintenance of the movement for tax reduction at any price. or college training, but this is not in principle of a uniform system of taxaLetters were sent to three people in each itself sufficient to enable them to meet tion upon real and personal property for of the States asking for a brief state- the special problems of the rural school. the whole State as a unit, and the payment—the State superintendent of pub- Rural supervision has increased the ment by the State for the entire cost of lic instruction, the secretary of the State efficiency of the rural school by helping transportation of pupils to graded or education association, and the State Di- and improving the rural teachers.--Will consolidated schools.-H. V. Holloway, rector of the National Education Asso- C. Wood, State superintendent of pub- State superintendent of public instrucciation. The following replies are full lic instruction, Sacramento.

tion and N. E. A. State director, Dover. of encouragement for the new year. The overwhelming defeat in the State Progressive building program planned They are also rich in suggestions for pro- legislature of the Dozier Bill, which and started. Marked increase in avergrams for State associations.

if passed would have removed every ves- age attendance in rural schools. Active

tige of tenure for teachers from the interest in State educational association Alabama (1) The formulation and State law.-William P. Dunlevy, N. E. to secure larger appropriation from legpresentation to the Legislature of a uni- A. State director, San Diego.

islature for public schools.-W. K. fied building and maintenance program

In face of unprecedented growth in Yerger, secretary, Delaware State covering all phases of education. school attendance, antagonistic and reac- Teachers Association, Wilmington. Though defeated, the projection of this tionary forces and inadequate budget District of Columbia—The prepaprogram represented a forward step in provisions, standards have been main- ration of comprehensive courses of study the realization of an educational ideal. tained and our educational program vin- for junior high schools including pro(2) The successful resistance of a re- dicated through supreme court decisions vision for the standardization of time actionary element in the legislature that entirely in the interest of the schools. allotments, programs, departmental would have destroyed the educational

There has developed a solidarity of pur- teaching, supervised study, and extramachinery of our State.-John W. pose amongst teachers and appreciative curricular activities.-Frank W. Ballou, Abercrombie, State superintendent of understanding on part of the people superintendent of schools, Washington, education, Montgomery.

never before known.--Arthur H. Cham- D. C. Alabama's gain in such items of edu- berlain, secretary, California Council of The beginning of a comprehensive cational progress as length of term and Education, San Francisco.

plan for putting into effect a coördinated, attendance has been more than twice as Colorado-Raising teachers' stand- unifying system of schools on the 6-3-3 great as the gains in purchasing power ards through the new certification law, basis.—Harry English, N. E. A. State of school funds. Birmingham's bonus which ultimately will mean a trained director, head of the Department of to all teachers attending meeting of Na- teacher in every schoolroom; and greater Mathematics, High Schools, Washingtional Education Association in San unification of the educational forces

ton, D. C. Francisco and taking a six weeks summer through growing professional organiza- Preparation for extending the junior course in a university, has proved of tions.-H. B. Smith, N. E. A. State di- high school organization in the schomore than local significance.-C. B. rector, and secretary, Colorado Educa- lastic year 1923-24 by providing special Glenn, superintendent of schools, Bir- tion Association, Denver.

courses for teachers in the graded mingham, and N. E. A. State director. Connecticut—The inauguration of schools, by erecting two new buildings

Arizona-Improvement through a State-wide system of certification of and providing for the conversion of two higher requirements for certificates, per- teachers establishing minimum standards other buildings, with the result that the manency of good salaries for teachers, of academic and professional work.- new school year opened with six junior and coöperation of parent-teachers asso- A. B. Meredith, commissioner of edu- high schools in operation-four white ciation.-C. O. Case, State superintend- cation, Hartford.

and two colored.-Adelaide Davis, secent of public instruction, Phænix.

Many cities and towns have erected retary, District of Columbia Education Arkansas—The passage of a sever- new school buildings to take up the Association, Washington, D. C. ance-tax act and a gross income-tax act · shortage that has existed since the war. Florida-The large increase in enwith the revenues from both these acts The schools were larger in 1923 than rolment of the Florida Education Assoto be placed in the common school fund. in any previous year and in most of the ciation, the employment of a full-time Through these acts, the State has as- cities and towns of the State additional secretary, and the establishment of the sumed a greater responsibility for the educational facilities are planned to Journal of the Florida Education Assoeducation of the children of the State.- meet the demand.

The school year

ciation.-W. S. Cawthon, State superA. B. Hill, State superintendent of pub- 1922-23 was notable as the first under intendent of public instruction, Tallalic instruction, Little Rock, and Mr. the new law for the certification of hassee, and Agnes Ballard, N. E. A. H. L. Lambert, business manager of the teachers. No new teachers may be em- State director, county superintendent of Arkansas Educational Association, Lit- ployed unless certified by the State au- schools, West Palm Beach. tle Rock.

thorities. An entirely normal The uniting of teachers and citizens California—The extension of school school plant is being built at New to secure a State survey to be followed advantages in rural districts through Britain to replace the present insufficient with legislation. The increased millage rural supervision and improvement of accommodations. All the cities and for school purposes and the publication

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