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TRACTS RELATING TO

IRELAND

A project was set on foot in 1720 for the establishing of a national

bank in Dublin. Swift took it for a variety of the stock-jobbing schemes which the South Sea Bubble had made overfamiliar, and wrote several skits upon the subject, including the Swearer's Bank, with the result that the project was rejected in parliament.

The seven Drapier's Letters, which were published at intervals

in 1724, were the first of Swift's writings to exercise that powerful influence over the people of Ireland which he long afterwards retained. Their precise object, the rejection of a copper coinage supposed to be base, and known to be uttered by a party.job," presents little of permanent interest, though the fraud, if such it was, stirred the vials of Swift's wrath tempest-high. The real importance of these Letters lies in their effect upon the Irish nation. For the first time an Irish public opinion was brought to bear upon the distant Government. The Drapier's Letters won the day; Wood's Halfpence were countermanded ; and the Dean, with an ineffectual offer of £300 for the discovery of the Drapier upon his head, became the idol of his countrymen and the terror of the lord-lieutenant. But the Letters are not wholly busied with halfpence. In the fourth, along with some of Swift's best manner in the treatment of the threat about the fire-balls, we come upon a noble vindication of Irish liberty and a strenuous repudiation of the doctrine of dependence. It was in this fourth letter that the Government found matter for prosecution, but no jury could be induced to bring a true bill even against the printer; and as for betraying the Dean, the popular feeling was expressed in the scriptural saying, then on everyone's lips, Shall Jonathan die who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel”?

The Modest Proposal was written and published in 1729, when

people in Ireland were starving in thousands and the dead lay unburied at the doors. It gives the essence of Swift's feeling about Ireland, and is “one of the most tremendous pieces of satire in existence. Swift is burning with a pas. sion, the glow of which makes other passions look cold, as it is said that some bright lights cause other illuminating objects to cast a shadow. Yet his face is absolutely grave, and he details his plan as calmly as a modern projector sug: gesting the importation of Australian meat. The superficial coolness may be revolting to tender-hearted people, and has indeed led to condemnation of the supposed ferocity of the author almost as surprising, as the criticisms which can see in it nothing but an exquisite piece of humour. It is, in truth, fearful to read even now: Yet we can forgive and even sympathize when we take it for what it really is the most complete expression of burning indignation against intolerable wrongs."-Leslie Stephen.

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“To

Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur. "O believe everything that is said by a certain set of

men, and to doubt of nothing they relate, though ever so improbable,” is a maxim that has contributed as much, for the time, to the support of Irish banks as it ever did to the Popish religion ; and they are not wholly beholden to the latter for their foundation, but they have the happiness to have the same patron saint; for Ignorance, the reputed mother of the devotion of one, seems to bear the same affectionate relation to the credit of the other.

To subscribe to banks, without knowing the scheme or design of them, is not unlike to some gentlemen's signing addresses without knowing the contents of them : to engage in a bank that has neither act of parliament, charter, nor lands to support it, is like sending a ship to sea without a bottom ; to expect a coach and six by the former, would be as ridiculous as to hope a return by the latter.

It was well known some time ago that our banks would be included in the bubble-bill; and it was be

lieved those chimeras would necessarily vanish with the first easterly wind that should inform the town of the royal assent.

It was very mortifying to several gentlemen who dreamed of nothing but easy chariots, on the arrival of the fatal packet, to slip out of them into their walking shoes. But should those banks, as it is vainly imagined, be so fortunate as to obtain a charter, and purchase lands; yet, on any run on them in a time of invasion, there would be so many starving proprietors, reviving their old pretensions to land and a bellyful, that the subscribers would be unwilling upon any call to part with their money, not knowing what might happen; so that in a rebellion, where the success was doubtful, the bank would infallibly break.

Since so many gentlemen of this town have had the courage, without any security, to appear in the same paper with a million or two; it is hoped, when they are made sensible of their safety, that they will be prevailed to trust themselves in a neat skin of parchment, with a single one.

To encourage them, the undertaker proposes the erecting of a bank on parliamentary security, and such security as no revolution or change of times can effect.

To take away all jealousy of any private view of the undertaker, he assures the world that he is now in a garret, in a very thin waistcoat, studying the public good ; having given an undeniable pledge of his love to his country by pawning his coat in order to defray the expense of the press.

It is very well known that, by an act of parliament to prevent profane swearing, the person so offending, on

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