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OF THE

NTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

OF

EUROPE

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BY JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, M.D., LL.D.,
Professor of Chemistry in the University of New York, Author of a
“Treatise on Human Physiology,” “Civil Policy of America,"

“ History of the American Civil War," &c.

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HISTORY OF THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE

Copyright, 1876, by HARPER & BROTHERS
Copyright, 1904, 1918, by ANTONIA DRAPER DIXON

Printed in the United States of America

i THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT .vomingdale Branch 200 West 100th St.

PREFACE.

Ar the meeting of the British Association for the Advance ment of Science, held at Oxford in 1860, I read an abstract of the physiological argument contained in this work respecting the mental progress of Europe, reserving the historical evidence for subsequent publication.

This work contains that evidence. It is intended as the completion of my treatise on Human Physiology, in which man was considered as an individual. In this he is considered in his social relation.

But the reader will also find, I think, that it is a history of the progress of ideas and opinions from a point of view heretofore almost entirely neglected. There are two methods of dealing with philosophical questions—the literary and the scientific . Many things which in a purely literary treatment of the subject remain in the background, spontanecvely assume a more striking position when their scientific relations are considered. It is the latter method that I haya nsed,

Social advancement is as completely under the control of natural law as is bodily growth. The life of an individual U is a miniature of the life of a nation. These propositions y it is the special object of this book to demonstrate.

No one, I believe, has hitherto undertaken the labour of arranging the evidence offered by the intellectual history of Europe in accordance with physiological principles,

6.0. TANSFER AUG 22 1942

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