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lars's quick march, and took such right measures, that from 1708. the 12th to the 31st of August, N. S. he compassed his true design, which was to make himself master of the important fortress of Exilles, fort la Perouse, and the valley of St. Martin and Fenestrella. By which conquests he secured his own dominions against France, and gained free entrance into the enemy's country, the French having built a strong citadei at Fenestrella, after the blowing up of the fortifications of Pignerol, in order to cover that frontier. The greatest difficulty in taking these places was from the impracticableness of the ground, which drew the fieges out into such a length, that the snow began to fall by the time Fenestrella was taken. By this means the Alps were cleared, and Dauphine was now open to him : and all things were ready for a greater progress in another campaign. Besides these advantages, the duke likewise made a diversion in favour of king Charles III, obliging the enemy to send a great detachment from Roussillon to Villars's support and assistance.

The queen of Great-Britain and the states-general had Campa in sollicited the imperial court and the German princes to act iufpain. with greater vigour than they had hitherto done, and parti- M. S. cularly preffed the emperor to give the utmost affiftance he Hift. of Eur. could to his brother in Spain, and heartily concurred with king Charles in desiring, that prince Eugene might be sent thither to command in chief. But this point could not be obtained (t); and, count Guido de Staremberg being ap

pointed

(t) This affair will be best ex

quence, but to no purpose. plained by the following extracts 'Prince Eugene is to be at hand of letters published by Mr. Cole to defend them, in case of need, in his memoirs of affairs of against the Turks, and to secure Itate.

them from any future insults from

the Swede, who had demanded The earl of Manchester to the the likeliberty for the reformed to earl of Sunderland. exercise their religion in Silesia,

as by count Wratislaw's conven. Vienna, January 7, 1707-8. tion at Alt Ranstadt the LutheThis evening count Gallas is rans are to enjoy. Count Guido at prince Eugene's, where the of Staremberg is declared geneaffairs of king Charles are to be ral for Spain, without consulting under debate. I had orders from Britain or Holland, whether they Britain, to urge their sending will put their troops under his prince Eugene to Spain,' and allo command.

I have writ my a letter writ by the queen to the thoughts pretty freely upon these emperor, recommending the fame practices, and monsieur Bruyas a matter of the greatest conse- ninx had done the same. Prince

E 3

Eugene

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Burnet,

1708. pointed in that prince's room, he arrived at Barcelona on
w the last of April, the supplies demanded by king Charles be-:

ing ärrived there before. Great hopes were conceived of this
new general, who had before commanded the imperial troops
in Hungary ; but it was generally believed, that the affairs
in Spain would have had much better success, if they had
been managed by prince Eugene.

The duke of Orleans still continued to command in Spain;
and, according to the vanity of that nation, it was given
out, that they were to have mighty armies in many different
places, and to put an end to the war there. Great rains
had fallen all the winter in all parts of Spain; so that the
campaign could not be opened so foon as it was first in-
tended. The troops of Portugal, which had lain at Barce-
lona ever since the battle of Almanza, were brought about
by a squadron of English ships, to the defence of their own
country. Sir John Leake came likewise over to Lisbon from
England with recruits and other supplies, with which the
queen of Great-Britain was to furnish the crown of Portu-
gal. When all was landed, Leake failed into the Mediter-

Eugene has a commission to act The Dutch envoy at Vienna to
as the emperor's lieutenant-gene-

the earl of Manchester.
ral, which but for the duke of

Vienna, January 28, 1707-8.
Savoy he had had last

year ;

the emperor's lieutenant-general be

We can by no means succeed to

to make prince Eugene go into ferve with him. I do not know Spain, and his imperial majesty how the elector of Hanover will alledges reasons for this, that relish the being commanded by the emperor designs to send thi

seem to have some weight; but
prince Eugene. I believe he

ther the count Guido of Starem-
will not fubmit to it; but they berg, who is likewise a good
must rather let the commission
lie dormant this next summer.

general.

Earl of Sunderland to the earl of
The carl of Manchester to the

Manchester.
earl of Sunderland.

Whitehall, February
Venice, January 17, 1707-8.

17, 1707-8.
I am glad, that both houses I wish with all

my heart, the of parliament have taken notice court of Vienna would come to of the fending prince Eugene reason, in relation to the fendinto Spain. If any thing will ing prince Eugene to Spain ; prevail with the court of Vienna, but that matter seems to be quite I think that should ; but I am over, and Staremberg will be far from thinking, that it will,

ranean

the inan.

ranean to bring troops from Italy, for the strengthening of 1708. king Charles, whose affairs were in great disorder.

Soon after Staremberg's arrival in Spain, major-general Stanhope came to us (fays the author of the manuscript fo often mentioned) with a commission of commander in chief of all her majesties forces in Spain, as Belcastle had orders to command the Dutch. All the troops marched out of their winter quarters to different camps, in the road to Cervera and Lerida. When Leake came with his fleet to Barcelona, king Charles sent immediately for count Staremberg from the camp at Montblanc, to consult with the generals Stanhope and Carpenter, and admiral Leake, whether he could undertake any thing for the service; and, nothing being fixed, the admiral failed for Italy, from whence he brought both the new queen of Spain and eight thousand men with him. But, by reason of the downefs of the court of Vienna, these forces came too late to raise the siege of Tortofa ; before which place the enemy came the 30th of June. Upon the news of this, a council of war was held, to see Tortosa bewhether we could undertake any thing to save that town,

sieged and

taken by the which, on the sea-side, was the key of Catalonia from Va- French. lencia. Count Efferen, a Palatine major-general, was sent to command in Tortofa, with a good garrison. The trenches were opened on the gth of June, and, in about a month's time, the governor, having no reason to expect any relief, surrendered upon honourable terms, and marched his garrifon to our camp at Constantino, in the Campo de Terrago

During the ficge, Leake disipated a fleet of Tartans, fent from France to supply the duke of Orlean's army, and took about fifty of them; which was a very seasonable relief to those in Barcelona, and which, it was hoped, though in vain, would have caused the siege to be raised.

From Constantino the army marched for Cervera with a good train of artillery, where they were joined by all the forces from Italy, and by some Dutch and Spanish battalions from Lampaurdan. Besides Tortosa, the enemy also took Denia, and the garrison were made prisoners of war. But these losses were abundantly made up to the allies, by the reduction of the kingdom of Sardinia, and of the famous Port-Mahon, with the whole ifland of Minorca.

Sir John Leake having taken on board the feet a few Reduction troops commanded by the marquis of Alconzel, better known of Sardinia, by his former title of Conde de Cifuentes, arrived before

E 4

Cagli..ri

Na.

insisted at first upon extravagant terms: but on the throw

1708. Cagliari (u), the capital of Sardinia, on the 12th of August,

N. S. and immediately summoned the marquis of Jamaica,
the viceroy, to submit to king Charles III. The marquis

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ing of a few bombs into the city, the inhabitants resolved to
compel him to surrender, with his garrison, at discretion;
whereupon both he and the magistrates accepted such arti-
cles as the admiral was pleased to grant (w). The greatest
part of the Spanish garrison readily listed themselves in king

Charles's

My lord,

troops at Mat

(u) In the memoirs of affairs goodness, &c. We are under of state, published by Christian this difficulty, that the land we Cole, efq; p. 545, is the fol- have there, with the island of lowing letter of Sir John Norris Majorca, will not afford grain to the earl of Manchester, relat- enough to feed the army and ing to the designed expedition.

country; for which reason we

are now going with the fleet, to Ranelagh, with the

try if we can reduce the island fleet bound to

of Sardinia to the obedience of Cagliari, July 26, king Charles. The troops we 1608.

have to do it with are our feaThe 17th inftant we arrived

men, twelve hundred marines, with the fleet and

and some unmounted Spanish tero, where we landed the queen dragoons; and, if half be true of Spain, she being from thence of what is represented to us, we to make her entry into Barce- shall succeed in that kingdom. lona. The next day our trans We have the Conde Cifuentes ports got to Barcelona, where with us, but he is not to med. we landed the horse and foot in dle till the place has declared. good condition. We loft but

We go directly for Cagliari, forty horses in the passage, and which is the seat of the vicenineteen that were in a Genoese king, and the capital of the vesiel, which loft

company

with

country. I am, &c.
the fleet, and was taken by a
cruizer of the

enemy,
The

JOHN Norris.

troops have joined the rest of the army, which all people say is in a good

(w) Sir John Norris wrote the
condition, and that there is a following letter upon the taking
good agreement with the com of this city to the earl of Man-
manders of each nation.

But cheiter.
from our unfortunate loss of Tor.
tosa, and the accidents of this From on board the Ranelagh,
campaign, the foot we brought before Cagliari, Aug. 18,
does but just make up

the num

1708, O.S.
ber we have lost; and in that
the enemy is much superior; My lord,
but in horse we have the ad This being the first opportu-
vantage, both in number and nity of my writing to Italy, since

our

Charles's service. Besides which, near two thousand horses 1708.

. were found there, ready to be transported to Spain, for remounting the enemy's cavalry; part of which were disposed of to the disinounted dragoons, who were employed in this expedition. The marquis d'Alconzel, who was conftituted viceroy and captain-general of that kingdom, having held an assembly of the deputies of the several states, they gave assurances of their affection and fidelity to king Charles III. and, for a proof, offered to furnish thirty thousand facks of corn for that king's service. This supply made the conquest of Sardinia the more confiderable; for, in Catalonia,

our arrival before Cagliari, will ed, and the whole island, without
plead my pardon, that I did not the loss of a man. In our capi-
sooner tell your lordship, that tulation we obliged them to fur-
we anchored before the town the nish Catalonia immediately with
3d instant in the afternoon, and fourteen hundred tons of corn,
fent a fummons to the vice-king, and to-morrow it will fail for
to render the town and kingdom Catalonia, being embarked in
of Sardinia to the obedience of our transports.
king Charles, with a letter to the Last night we received letters
burghers, to assure them of their from the king of Spain and Mr.
effects and antient privileges, in Stanhope, and news, that the
case they made their obedience. king had appointed fifteen hun-
The officer sent had leave to wait dred soldiers under Mr. Stanhope,
four hours for an answer, if re to go to reduce the island of Ma-
quired; at which time, being jorca and the fortress of Port-
night, he returned with an an Mahon. He desires our affift-
swer from the vice-king, that it ance in the fame; on which we
was fo late that he could not that this morning agreed to go to
night get all the government to that service, and to-morrow we
gether, but would do it the next fail for that island: and, though
morning, and send their answers. the French have a garrison there,
We judged it best to keep on the yet, if the weather proves good,
fright, and cause no delay, and I believe we may say we hall
that instant began bombarding, carry it. This will suit us in
and hove that night an hundred visiting the pope, as we intended,
and twenty shells into the town, for helping the pretender, till
and landed our men at the point another season. But, after this
of day; and, as soon as it was service, our winter-ships will go
light, the vice-king sent off a to Naples, to convoy to Cata-
flag of truce, to desire to capi- lonia the troops the king expects
tulate; after which the mob took from thence, and the rest of our
poffeffion of the gates, and deli- ships will be obliged to go home
vered them up to us.

Thus we

to refit for the next year, &c. I have got a city much ftronger am, &c. than Barcelona, and that has

John Norris. eighty-seven brass cannon mount

they

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