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had killed the queen's hand, and been knighted, in order 1710.
to be made one of the judges of the queen's bench, in the
room of Sir Henry Gould, deceased ; and Sir Edward Nor-
they was made attorney-general. Dr. Robinson, dean of
Windsor, who of late had grown into great confidence with
Mr. Harley, was nominated to succeed Dr. Hall deceased,
in the bishopric of Bristol ; and Dr. Byfle to succeed Dr.
Bull, deceased, in the fee of St. David's. The duke of Ha-
milton was appointed lord-lieutenant of the county palatine
of Lancaster; the earl of Portmore was made commander in
chief of her majesty's forces in Portugal, in the room of the
earl of Galway; the lord Windfor advanced to the post of
lieutenant-general ; and general Webb made governor of
the Isle of Wight.

So fudden and so intire a change in the ministry is scarce
to be found in our history, especially where men of great
abilities had served with such zeal and success, that the ad-
ministration of all affairs, both at home and abroad, in
their hands, was not only without exception, but had raised
the admiration of all Europe. All this role purely from
the great credit of the new favourites, and the queen's per-
fonal distaste to the old ones. The queen was much
delighted with all these changes, and feeined to think the
was frecd from the chains, which the old ministry held her
in. She spoke of it to several per ons as a captivity, which
she had been long under. The duke of Somerset had very
much alienated the queen's mind from the old ministry; but
he was so displcased with the diffolution of the parliament,
and the new model of the ministry, that, though he con-
tinued some time master of the horse, he refused to sit any
more in council, and complained openly of the artifices,
which had been used to make him instrumental to other
people's designs.

On the 28th of September, the queen went to Hampton- The lieucourt, having the same day ordered the seals to be put to a tenancy of commision for renewing the lieutenancy of the city of Tiranega

changed. London; in which several whigs, who were in the former, were left out, and tories put in their places. This new commision was chiefly designed, both to prevent Sir Gilbert Heathcote, an alderman near the chair, and governor of the bank (who had given offence to the court, by his application to the queen in favour of the late ministry) from being chosen lord-mayor, and to strengthen the interet of the high-church party in the election of parliament-men for the capital city, which generally has a great


Q&t. 23.

1710. influence upon other elections. But that commission was

opened too late to have the intended effect; for, the election
for a lord-mayor coming on the 29th of September, accord-
ing to custom, the majority appeared for Sir Gilbert Heath-
cote and Sir Robert Beachcroft; and though a poll was de-
manded, and great interest made by the tory-party for Sir
Richard Hoare, yet the two first had the majority of voices;
and, being, on the 5th of October, returned by the com-
mon-hall, the court of aldermen, on the lith, chose Sir
Gilbert Heathcote lord-mayor for the year ensuing, but in
this point he had but common justice done him, there hav-
ing been an agreement, made some years before between the
aldermen of London, to chufe him, who was next the
chair, to prevent animosities and disputes. On the roth of
October the queen's commission for a new lieutenancy was
opened at Guild-Hall, when Sir Samuel Garrard, then lord-
mayor, Sir Francis Child, Sir John Parsons, Sir Robert
Bedingfield, Sir William Withers, and Sir Richard Hoare,
were chosen colonels of the fix city-regiments. About a
fortnight after the new lieutenancy of London presented an
address to the queen, who took that opportunity to desire
as they had


fortunes of their own, that they 66 would use their endeavours to support the public credit.“ It was expected, that this recommendation would have had a good effect, and engaged the tory-party in the city, either to advance money to the government, or to use their utmost endeavours to support the public funds. But neither of these happened; and to the bank, East-India, annuities, and other stocks continued sinking, which gave the ministry no small uneasiness; the rather, because some bills of exchange, drawn from Genoa for remittances into Spain, happend at this juncture to be protested. Mr. Harley, the new chancellor of the exchequer, sent his agents into the city, who found means to engage several rich merchants and bankers, particularly Mr. John Lambert, a French refugee, to supply the urgent neceffities of the government.

By this time the election for parliament-men were over The elec

in several places; and by the first returns it appeared, that, amongst the new members, the number of the whigs was near equal with that of the tories; which, as was then given out, answered the expectation and desires of the new managers. For having gained their chief aim, which was to remove the late lord treasurer and his friends, it was by many believed, that they designed to carry things even between both parties; and therefore wished only for such a


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majority of the high-church in the house of commons, as 1710.
might countenance the new scheme; and whom, on the
other hand, they might easily check by means of their own
creatures, if an unseasonable zeal for the church Ihould
prompt them to make any motions against the toleration. If
this was the real intention of the new ministry, or of Mr.
Harley in particular, the chief author of the late changes ;
it soon appeared, that they were either mistaken in their
computation, or disappointed in their wishes; and the new
members of the high-church party far out-numbered those
of the contrary fide ; which, besides the influence of the
court, was owing to several other causes. For, in the first
place, many of the whig gentlemen, who either could not
be induced to believe, that the last parliament would be dif-
folved, till the blow was given ; or who, in case of a disfo-
lution, thought themselves secure of being re-chosen, had
neglected making an interest; whilst those, who designed to
oppose them, had early taken all the necessary measures to
carry their point. Secondly, the ferment, raised by Dr.
Sacheverel's trial, was now rather increased than abated,
being industriously fomented and propagated throughout the
kingdom, in order to influence elections ; which it did ef-
fectually, and in a more visible manner, in the cities and
boroughs, through which that divine had made his trium-
phant progress in the summer. Thirdly, all the inferior
clergy, a few excepted, thinking themselves attacked througk
the sides of Dr. Sacheverel, were more than ordinarily zeal-
ous and diligent in promoting the interest of such, as they
thought beft affected to the church ; not only without any
regard to the necessary qualifications of personal merit or
estate in the candidates, but in several instances, in breach
of the common duties of gratitude, ftrenuously opposing
their very patrons and benefactors. Besides a course, for
some months, of very inflaming sermons, they went about
from house to house, pressing their people to Thew, on this
great occasion, their zeal for the church, and now or never
to save it. They also told them, in what ill hands the queen
had been kept, as in captivity; and that it was a charity, as-
well as their duty, to free her from the power, which the
late ministry exercised over her. In the last place, there
was a vast concourse of rude multitudes brought together,
who behaved themselves in fo boisterous a manner, that it
was not safe, and in many places not possible, for those,
who had a right to vote, to come and give their votes for a
whig. Open violence was used in several places. This was


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1710. fo general through the whole kingdom, all at the same time,

that it was visible, that the thing had been concerted for some time, and the proper methods and tools had been prepared for it. The influence of the mob was, in a particular manner, remarkable in the election for the city of Westminster; where Mr. Medlicot and Mr. Cross being set up by the high-church party, some of those, who offered to give their voices for their competitors, general Stanhope and Sir Henry Dutton Colt, were knocked down and wounded, which obliged many of their party to return home without polling ; so the two first candidates had a vast majority. The whigs expected, that the election of the city of London would balance that of Westminster; and indeed, the first day of the poll, their candidates had a considerable advantage; but such industry was used by the then lord-mayor and the aldermen of the high-church party, in bringing many citizens upon the livery, and engaging their votes, that, upon closing the books, Sir William Withers, Sir Richard Hoare, Sir George Newland, and Mr. John Cass, all four of that party, having the majority of votes, were declared duly elected. After the poll was ended, there were extraordinary rejoicing throughout the city, by illuminations, bone-fires, ringing of bells, &c. and the tumultuous mob were so exalted and enraged against those, who seemed not to partake in the public joy, that they broke all the windows they saw unlighted, without distinction ; so that many

houses of the church-party were damaged, as well as those of the whigs, and in particular that of Sir Richard Hoare, one of the four, for whose fakes these rejoicings were made. Some days before, the mob was guilty of a till greater instance of outrage ; for, as Sir Gilbert Heathcote, ore of the whig candidates, and lord-mayor elect, was going out of Guild-Hall, they not only insulted him with reproachful language, but one of them spit in his façe.

Though the tories had boasted, that none of the managers against Dr. Sacheverel would be rechosen members of parliament ; yet, notwithstanding the utmost endeavours, that were used to prevent it, Sir Joseph Jekyll, Sir Peter King, Mr. Lechmcre, and Mr. Walpole, were returned ; as was also general Stanhope for Cockermouth, though he loft his election at Westminster : however, there were few whigs returned, against whom petitions were not offered ; there were in all about a hundred, and, by the firit steps after the meeting of the parliament, the majority made it ap




pear, that they intended to clear the house of all who were 1710.
fufpected to be of that party. As for the elections in Scot- in
land, the fixteen peers returned were the dukes of Hamilton
and Athol ; the marquis of Annandale; the earls of Mare-
schal, Eglington, Mar, Loudoun, Hume, Kinoule, Northeske,
Orkney, Roseberry, Ilay; the lord viscount Kelfythe; and
the lord Balmerino and Blantyre. And the elections of the
commons were much upon an equal foot between whigs and

On the 30th of October, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, lord-
mayor of London, was, according to cuftum, sworn at the
exchequer in Westminster; but the pageantry, and some
other parts of the usual solemnity, were omitted, as he well
knew, he was not acceptable to the common people, some
of whom were so bold as to insult him in the cavalcade.
On the 6th of November, the queen came from Hampton-
Court to St. James's palace, where, the next day, she kept
the general thanksgiving, for the fucceffes of the last cam-
paign, in her royal chapel.
Two days after, a remarkable advertisement, figned Hen. A remarka-

ble adveitite ry St. John, was published in the London Gazette, importing, that, fome evil-designing persons having unscrewed 66 and taken away feveral iron bolts out of the great tim“bers of the west roof of the cathedral church of St. “ Paul, her majesty, for the better discovery of the offen--5 ders, was pleased to promise her most gracious pardon, " and a reward of fifty pounds, to any perfon concerned “ therein, who should discover his accomplices.” This advertisement occafioned the report of a plot to destroy the queen and the court, by the fall of the roof of St. Paul's, on the thanksgiving-day, when it was supposed her majesty would have gone thither ; which pretended screw-plot (as it was afterwards called) many of the tories and emiffaries of the new miniftry were ready enough to charge upon the whigs. But upon enquiry it appeared, that the missing of the iron pins was owing to the neglect of fome workmen, who thought the timbers sufficiently fastened without them.

The parliament being met on the 25th of November, the Third parlicommons, by direction from the throne, proceeded to the ament of choice of a speaker, which, as it was generally expected, tain., without any opposition, on Mr. Bromley. He had, Pr. H.C. for many years past, becn cholen member for the univerli-Mr. Brem

ley chosen ty of Oxford ; was fure of all the votes of the church-par-Speaker. ty, of which he had been one of the most constant and re


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