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powers; which count Bergheyck did in a letter to the duke 1709. of Marlborough, dated from Mons, Aug. 21, with a copy of their instructions ; and they sent another, at the same time, to the deputy of the states ; which were accordingly transmitted to their principals. But no answer was thought fit, either by England or Holland, to be returned to them, And to admit plenipotentiaries from him now, would undo all that had been hitherto agreed on; and, instead of seeking for an expedient for the 37th article of the preliminaries, the whole of them would have been deftroyed, and the treaty must have been begun intirely anew.

In count Bergheyck's letter there was also broad intimations, how grateful king Philip would be, if, by means of the duke of Marlborough's good offices, his just and reasonable desires might be complied with; and there was nothing he would not do to content England in general, or that might be to his fatisfaction in particular. Torcy was likewise said to write very unnecessarily, and with great officiousness, two or three very civil letters to the duke, till he found his civilities were lost upon him. Petkum, after a stay at Paris of about ten days, and several fruitless interviews with the marquis de Torcy, returned to the Hague, on the 7th of December, without having been able to make the least progress in the business he went upon, or bringing so much as the pretence of an expedient along with him but, instead of that, he brought the sense of the French court, in a paper drawn up by Torcy, and importing in substance, “ That it would be impossible for the king of France “ to execute the 37th article of the preliminaries, even “ though his majesty could resolve to sign it. That the “other articles were proposed by the allies fix months ♡ since, in order to prevent, by a fufpenfion of arms, the “ events of the campaign, which might change the dispo« fitions towards peace : and that reason now ceasing, be“ cause the winter-season naturally produced a cessation of " arms, without any agreement in writing ; that there“ fore, without farther mention of the preliminaries, the “ three winter months might be spent in treating and con“cluding a peace. That, though the form of the preliminaries were suppressed, yet the king of France would “preserve the substance, and treat on the foundation of the "conditions, to which he had consented, for the satisfac" tion of the emperor, England, and Holland, and their " allies, though he had declared that those conditions VOL. XVIL

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« should be void, if they were not accepted during the ne“ gotiation at the Hague. That his majesty was ready “ to resume the negotiations on the same foot, and lend “ his plenipotentiaries to such a place as should be a

greed on, to begin the conferences with those of the al“ lies, on the firit day of January. And, if this proposal “ were accepted, the fieur Petkum might forthwith return, “ for fettling the passes, and other formalities, for the place " and manner of meeting (f).” The states-general, hav

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(f) Dr. Hare, in his fourth « letter to a tory member,' p. 19, obferves, that this answer was short even of their expectations, who hoped least from it; for this overthrew all the

preliminaries at once, while • the king pretended to agree to • all but one; and by promi

sing to keep the substance of

them, while they destroy the form, they effećtually defeat • all that had been done, and

recover to themselves an in• tire liberty to dispute all points • afresh, and to lay hold of all « the occasions, which that • would give them, to create • divifions and jealousies be

tween the states and their al• lies; which is plainly the great

point they have all along aim

ed at; which though they have • been so terribly disappointed

in, they are unwilling to give • over, in hopes their constancy 6 and firmness to the common

cause would in time be wea‘ried out, and yield to the im

portunate follicitations with .. which they tempted them.

Though to prevent a new campaign might be a reason

for haftening the preliminaries, . it was not the only or chief

design of them. Whenever a treaty should commence,

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• the allies had declared long • before, in answer to the elec

tor of Bavaria's letters at the end of the Ramilles campaign,

they would not enter on it, till • fome fundamental points were • first settled, the necessity of ' which they were convinced of • by the dear-bought experience " of former treaties: and the fame experience has taught • the allies, that no treaty with • France can be effectual, if the • fundamental articles are not

executed as well as agreed on, • before the general treaty is

concluded; which security the marquis would intirely take

away, by deferring the exe• cution till after ratification. • Thus the two great ends of a

preliminary treaty, which are ' to agree on some fundamen• tal points, and secure the exe“cution of them, are by this • answer intirely destroyed; and • the allies are not only where

they were before that treaty

was begun, but are really the « worse for it; it being of greater

advantage to the French to • know beforehand what are the . particular demands, which the emperor

and maritime powers • insist on for themselves, and

in behalf of the allies. As for folving all now by two

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1709.

ing considered both the answer and the report of their deputies, came to the unanimous resolution, “ That the fieur 6. Petkum, who, at the desire, and, upon the repeated in66 stances of France, was permitted, with the consent and “ knowledge of the high allies, to go for France, to see if “ any expedient could be found out, for removing the dif« ficulties about the 37th article of the preliminaries, was, - contrary to all expectation, returned, not only without

bringing any such expedient with him, but with an anso swer, in which France intirely receded from the founda~ tions agreed to with common consent, and with a pro.66 posal to enter into a formal negotiation of peace, with« out settling and adjusting any thing beforehand ; a pro“ pofal in all times adjudged dangerous, and contrary to “ the declaration made on the part of France, " That all “ the preliminary articles fhould remain firm, as they were 6 settled, only with such alterations in the terms of the excecution, which the course of time had rendered necessary,

except only the 37th article. That from this way of “ proceeding, nothing could be expected, but that the enemy was not fincerely

. disposed to agree to a safe peace; and that little regard was to be had to the assurances of “ their good intentions, seeing the effects agreed so little “ with their profeffions; but rather, that all was concerted " and designed to fow, if possible, distrusts and jealousies s between the allies and that state, while the French were 66 refolved to continue the war. That therefore it was ab“ folutely necessary, that the allies in general, and every “ one of them in particular, should, in an extraordinary " manner, exert themselves, and make early preparations “ for prosecuting with vigour, in the next campaign, the " advantages obtained in the laft. That a letter to that “ purpose should be written to the emperor and diet of the “ empire at Ratisbon; the confederated circles, the electors

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* words, Form and Substance, « been found to be the substance ? two other words, the Letter of them, and the pretended s and Spirit of the Partition < substance would have proved

treaty, are still too well re a shadow only. Here then * membered for the allies to be • Dutch bluntness and plain* again deceived by the French dealing proved too hard for distinctions, which, if they " the finesle of the French : a I could now pass upon them, it word not more peculiar to : is easy to see, that the form " them, than the thing meant of these articles would have • by it.'

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" and princes of the empire, the queen of Great-Britain, " and the duke of Savoy. And that their imperial and “ Britannic majefties should be desired, that prince Eugene « of Savoy, and the prince and duke of Marlborough, « might come to the Hague very early in the spring, be“ fore the end of February, to concert the necessary mea“ sures for the campaign.” The queen of Great-Britain not only returned a favourable answer to the letter of the statesgeneral, but resolved also to exhort all the allies to a vigo-rous prosecution of the war; and, in particular, wrote a very pressing letter to the general diet of the empire.

About the time Petkum returned to the Hague, the French king wrote to king Philip, to acquaint him with what had pafled, and to allure him, that, though he was obliged to recall his troops, he need not be alarmed at it, for that he would never abandon him; and that he had or. dered twelve regiments, that were then in Spain, to join the Spaniards, in case king Charles should make an irruption into Arragon. And a little after monsieur Ibbeville was sent to Madrid ; that both his journey and business were made so great a secret, that it was not for some time known whither he was gone : and when he came to Madrid, where he' arrived on the 26th of December, his instructions were to communicate his business to nobody but the king himself. He did not make a long stay, nor was he in appearance well received; but no judgment could be made from thence what his errand was; there was no way to distinguish be tween what was real and what disguise. But to judge from other steps, it is most reasonable to think his business was to learn the state in which king Philip's affairs were, and to give him his lesson, how he should manage in so nice a juncture ; with assurances, that in spite of all appearances to the contrary, which the necessity of his affairs might oblige the French king to make, he would never defert him, much less agree with the allies, upon any terms, to turn his arms against him. But this journey was made a great mystery of, to make the allies believe, that the business of it was to persuade king Philip

to retire out of Spain, fince it would be impossible for the French king to support him any longer.

About the beginning of May happened an extraordinary event, which railed much discourse and argument in England, namely, the coming over of great numbers of Palatines, Swabians, and other Germans, most of them Lutherans, being driven from their habitations, either by the op

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pressive exactions of the French, or the defolation of their 1709. native country, occasioned by the calamities of the war : for that, by the middle of June, they were increased to fix thoufand five hundred and twenty men, women, and children among whom were schoolmasters, husbandmen, vine-drerfers, herdsmen, wheel-wrights, smiths, weavers, carpenters, masons, bakers, coopers, brewers, and other handi-, crafts-men. It was never certainly known upon what motives, and with what views, thefe people were brought over; but it is certain, that, being come into Holland, with defign to go for the English Plantations in America, upon an invitation of some of their countrymen, who were reported' to be there in a thriving condition, they were furnished with shipping to come over to England by Mr. d’Ayrelles, the British secretary at the Hague, by direction from those in the adminiftration. Being deftitute of all necessaries, they must inevitably have perished, had not the queen first ordered a daily allowance to be distributed to them, and, at the same time, a sufficient number of tents to be delivered out of the Tower, for their incamping on Black-Heath near Greenwich, and in a large field near Camberwell; and afterwards, upon the petition of the justices of the peace for the county of Middlesex, granted a brief for the collection of charity-money within that county; which brief was fortly after made to extend through the whole kingdom of Great-Britain ; and, at the same time, were appointed several persons, in the most eminent stations, to be trustees and commiffioners, for receiving and disposing of the monies so collected. The kind reception and entertainment which these distressed 'fugitives found here, having been reported abroad, encouraged many other Germans to leave their defolate habitations, and to follow their countrymen, infomuch that their numbers increased so fast, that the secretary at the Hague was directed to put a stop to their coming over. Aş a considerable number of German Roman catholics had come along with the protestants, such of them as did not voluntarily change their religion, were, at the queen's expence, fent back to Holland, where the ordered a sum of money to be distributed to them, towards the charges of their journey home. As for the Palatines, who staid behind in Greate Britain, fome were entertained in private families, fome fent to Ireland, and others to Carolina, and the greatest part to New-York, under the direction of commiffary Du Pré, who failed with them for that country about the beginning

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