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Schonen, about the middle of November, having firft pub- 1709. lished a manifesto, wherein he set forth his reasons for de. W claring war against Sweden. Finding no resiftance at his landing at Helsingburg, he fixed there his head-quarters; but, the cold seafon not permitting him to undertake the fiege of Landscroon, he disposed his troops into winterquarters, and, on the 4th of December, N. S. returned to Copenhagen. Some time after, the Danes having taken the field, made fome progress in Schonen ; but the regency of Stockholm having by this time fent a good body of troops into that province, the Swedes obliged the enemy to retire under the cannon of Helsingburg ; where, on the roth of March, N. S. 1709-10, they attacked them with so much bravery and fierceness, that the Danes were almoft totally defeated ; and, not being able to maintain themselves at Helsingburg, abandoned that city on the night, between the 15th and 16th of that month, went on board their ships, and failed for Elsinore, leaving behind them their horses, and fome provision and baggage, which they had not either time or conveniencies to carry off.

The Swedish army that was in Poland, having got into Pomerania, the French studied to engage them to fall into Saxony, to imbroil the affairs of Germany, and, by, that means oblige the neighbouring princes to recall the troops, that were in her Britannic majesty's service, and that of the other allies in Flanders. But the queen and the states-general interposed effectually in this matter; and the Swedes were fo fenfible how much they might need their protection, that they acquiefced in the propofitions that were made to them; by which means the peace of the northern parts of the empire was secured. A peace was likewise made up between the grand fignior and the czar. The king of Sweden continued at Bender. The war of Hungary still went on. The court of Vienna published ample relations of the great successes they had there ; but these were faid to be given out, to make the malecontents seem an inconsiderable and ruined party. There were secret negotiations still on foot, but without effect.

Nothing of importance passed at sea. The French fent Sea-affairs. out no fleet; and our convoys were so well ordered, and so successful, that the merchants made no complaints. To- The admiwards the end of the year, the earl of Pembroke, finding ralty put in the care of the fleet a load too heavy for him to bear, defired to lay it down. It was offered to the earl of Orford ; but though he was willing to serve at the head of a com


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1709. miffion, he refused to accept of it singly; so it was put in end commission, in which he was the first, the other commif

fioners being Sir John Leake, Sir George Byng, Mr. George Dodington, and Mr. Paul Methuen. The queen gave the earl of Pembroke a pension of three thousand pounds a year, payable out of the revenue of the post-office, in consideration of his eminent services (d).

(d) Matthew Aylmer, efq; Sir John Jennings, admiral, and was appointed admiral, and com- Sir Edward Whitaker, vice-ad. mander in chief of her majesty's miral of the white ; Sir John navy; the lord Dursley, vice. Norris, admiral, and John Baker, admiral; and Charles Wager, esq; vice-admiral of the blue. efq; rear-admiral of the red;



France makes new overtures of peace. Palatines come to Eng

land.- A parliament in Ireland. Their proceedings. And of the convocation there. - Dr. Sacheverel's fermons. - He is impeached. - And tried. Oxford decree burnt. - The queen Spoke to with great freedom by bishop Burnet.--Fresh overtures of peace from France. -The queen addressed to send the duke of Marlborough to the Hague.-- Conferences about the terms of peace.--Campaign in Flanders.-- On the Rhine.--In Piedmont. Affairs of Spain. -Battle of Almanara.And of Taragolja. The English surprized at Brighuega.-Battle of Villaviciosa.

-Campaign in Portugal.-Affairs in the North.-- Campaign in Hungary.Addresses of different style.-The queen sends to the duke of Marlborough, to give a regiment to Mr. Hill. Proceedings thereon.— The queen defifts from her recommendation.--The duke of Shrewsbury made lord chamberlain.- Lord

Godolphin's letter to the queen upon it.- Earl of Sunderland : dismised; and lord Dartmouth made secretary.- The tories

elated, and whigs alarmed at it. The emperor and states interpose.-The earl of Godolphin dismissed. The parliament disfolved, and other changes. -The elections of parliament-men. The third parliament of Great-Britain. - The duke of Marlborough returns to England, and acquiefces in the new councils.

Conduct in Spain ; and the late ministry censured.- Reflections on it. - Lord Peterborough thanked by the lords. - The earl of Galway cenfured for giving the precedence to the Portuguese. Inquiry about the Palatines. A bill for qualifying members passed. Attempt upon Mr. Harley. Turns to his advantage. He is made earl and lord treasurer. - Inquiries into the public accounts. Emperor dies ; and a message from the

queen to the parliament thereon. Act for the South-Sea trade. Representation of the commons at the end of the Seffion.

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A loon as the campaign in the Netherlands was ended,

the French court thought fit to make new advances towards a negotiation of peace. In order to which, fignior France Foscarini, the Venetian ambassador, who, about this time, makes new came to Holland, took a turn incognito to Amsterdam, to found the burgomasters of that city. On the other hand, Hare. monsieur Petkum, resident of the duke of Holstein, at the Burneta


overtures of


1709. Hague, who had been secretly employed the last winter in

the negotiations there, kept up a correspondence by letters
with monsieur de Torcy, to try if an expedient could be
found out for the 37th article in the preliminaries ; the dif-
ficulty in that article being the only point, for which the
conferences, in appearance at leaft, were broke off. The
point they offered to fatisfy the allies in, was, that the
French king fhould not, direaly 'nor indirectly, affist his
grandfon king Philip ; and, with regard to the expedient
proposed to secure this point, all went upon the same foot
with that which Petkum had proposed, as from himself, the
day before Rouillé left the Hague. That three towns should
be put into the hands of the allies, to be restored to France,
when the affairs of Spain, &c. Thould be decided. The
meaning of which seemed to be no other, than that France
was willing to lose three more towns, in case king Philip
fhauld keep Spain and the West-Indies. The places there-
fore ought to have borne some equality to that, for which
they were to be given in pawn ; but the answers, which the
French made to every proposition, shewed they meant no-
thing but to amuse and distract the allies. The firft de-
mand made by the allies was of the places in Spain, then in
the hands of the French kings for the delivering up of
thefe might have been a good step to the reduction of the
whole. But this was fatly refused ; and, that the king of
France might put it out of his power to treat about it, he
ordered his troops to be drawn out of all the strong places
in Spain, and soon after out of the kingdom, pretending
that he was thereby evacuating it, though the French forces
were kept still in the neighbourhood. Thus a fhew was
made of leaving Spain to defend itself; and upon that,
king Philip prevailed on the Spaniards to make great efforts,
beyond what was ever expected of them. This was done
by the French king to deceive both the allies and his
own subjects, who were calling loudly for a peace; and it
likewise eafed him of a great part of the charge that Spain
had put him to. But while his troops were called out of
that kingdom, as many deserted, by a visible connivance,
as made up several battalions; and all the Walloon regi-
ments, as being subjects of Spain, were fent thither; fo that
king Philip was not weakened by the recalling the French
troops; and by this means the places in Spain could not be
any more demanded.

The next demand, as most im
portant towards the reduction of Spain, was, that Bayonne,
and Perpignan might be put into the hands of the allies, with


Thionville on the side of the empire. By the two former, 1709. all communication betwixt France and Spain would be cut off, and the allies would be enabled to fend forces thither with less expence and trouble. But it was said, these were the keys of France, which the king could not part with; and therefore it remained to treat of towns on the frontier of the Netherlands, and even there they excepted Doway, Arras, and Cambray ; so that all the offers appeared illusory, and the intercourse by letters was for some time let fall (c). After fome time Torcy wrote to Petkum to desire,

fince (e) Dr. Hare, in his fourth allies from persisting in this deletter to a tory-member, sets • mand, the king soon after put forth this affair' more at large : • it out of his power to comply • This, says he, was the nature with it; otherwise his people, * of the expedient in agitation ; as blind as they are, could not * and nothing can fhew better • have had any great opinion of 6 the readiness of the allies to • his fincerity in the defires he

put an end to the war, and the expressed for peace, while he • insincerity of France, than what • rejected a condition that was so s passed between them on this ( natural for the allies to ask; • subject. The towns to be given " and not only possible, but easy

up for this purpose must have for him to grant; and which been either in Spain, or on the o the safety and interest of

borders of it, or on the fide of • France, as distinct from Spain, 6 Alface, or in Flanders. What were no way concerned in. 6 ever could have been done of · That the negotiations there « this kind, was but a poor ex • fore might not continue to rest • pedient for an article of fo upon this point, he took care * much consequence; and, had immediately, that there should • the king of France been in • be no room left for the allies $ earnest, one cannot think he to insist on this demand; and • would have made any difficulty to that end withdrew his troops, I to give the allies what they out of all the Spanish fortresses,

were willing to accept. But, as he did afterwards out of the as he meant nothing less than • kingdom, upon pretence in.

what he was so forward to pro • deed of evacuating Spain, ac« mise, there was no security of cording to the preliminary ar* this fort the allies could ask,

6 ticles. But that was only a • which he did not think too pretence ; for he kept them

• there all the summer, to be at • As for towns in Spain, which hand to assist the duke of Anwas the best security, and most jou, in case his army should be • to the purpose, that expedient attacked, or an invafion should

had been proposed during the • be made into Arragon; though conferences at the Hague, and • otherwise the general, that

was by the French ministers ? commanded them, had orders #refused: and, to prevent the ' not to venture a battle, but to


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* much to grant.

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