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motive of the treaty for evacuating the Milanese, and of their perfisting so obstinately in their design upon Naples ;


to be blamed for it. Secondly, made, he was bound by it ; and, Becaule, if he did infift, it was fince that required the reftituwhat he was obliged to: he had tion of the whole Spanish mono authority to do otherwise. All narchy, he was obliged to infift the world knows, that both

upon it.

So the thirty-seventh houses of parliament did, the article was unanimously adhered beginning of that year 1709, to as it is, by all the ministers; address the queen, that no peace and their doing so, I shall now should be made with France, shew you, was very right in its without an intire restitution of' self, and necessary in order to a the Spanish monarchy: and her good peace. First, it is right in majetty was pleased to express itself, that is, just and reafonaherself very well pleased with able, not hard, or infolent, or their address, and that she was inhuman, as these advocates of perfectly of the fame opinion. France would have it thought, This address being thus approv

For what is the point in dispute, ed, no minister had any power or

but to rettore to an injured perau: hority to conclude a treaty up- fon what has been unjustly taken on other terms, without her ma from him ? has not the injured jeity's con mand; nor could such party, by the fundamertal laws a command be expected from of justice, a right to this ? or is her, without advice of her coun- not the party, that does the incil: and I believe a council will jury, obliged to restitution, where not easily be found, that will it is possible ? and is not this the advise against the joint opinion case of the Spanish monarchy ? of both houses of parliament. I despair of ever proving any If therefore the thirty-seventh usurpation unjust, if this is not. article was insisted on, the duke But if it be unjust, does it alter is not to be blamed; he did but the case, because the king of his duty, and could not justify France has not usurped it for his doing otherwise; which, if himself, but for his grandfon? he had, would as certainly have am I the less obliged to restore been made a high crime and mif- what I have unjustly seized, bedemeanor, as his not doing it is cause I have given it to a third now made a matter of complaint person, provided it be in my against him. There is no room power ? does not the duke of for any objection here, unless Anjou know, as well as his grandit could be pretended, that this father, that it is a violent usuraddress was of his procuring; pation ? can he of right keep, the contrary to which is as well what the other had no sight to known, as the address itself. giver is it not kept plainly for But though it is plain, that the the use and benefit of the giver ? duke of Marlborough had no has not the giver power to take hand in making this address, it it from him? is it not plain, is as plain, that when it was that his grandson has not kept

therefore sent to Holland with general offers of peace, defiring them to propose what they insisted on; and he offered



with no option in the case. He action. Sieges will cost time, as would certainly keep Spain and well as men and money; and the Indies, and give the other many must be made before such part to his competitor. And if a kingdom can be reduced ; and that be accepted, what becomes that will give the king of France of England, which is so much opportunity enough to do what interested in the recovery of he will, to support his grandson Spain? and if it be not accepted, secretly or openly, or to prescribe what shall hinder the French a peace, or begin a new war, king from affisting his grandson which it is always easy to find a after one year, more openly, pretence for; and we are sure he and taking upon him to medi cannot want inclination to do ate a peace; that is, to force whatever is in his power, which such a one as he pleases upon us ! such a cause calls for. Nor is he for how can we help ourselves ? fo little known, as to leave us Ihall we be in a condition to the least room to think, that any quarrel with him, when we have treaties or engagements can bind been exhausted two years more

him, when inclination and power with such an expensive war, tempt him to break through while he has been enjoying all them. His whole reign is one the advantages of peace, to re continued proof of this. I have pair the breaches the war had said somewhat of it already, and made in his affairs ; to restore therefore shall add but one incommerce, retrieve the public ftance, which is a little parallel credit, remedy the ill state of his to the case before us; and that finances, look into the condition is, the manner, in which he of his fleet, and put himself into kept the promise he made the the best posture he can for a new Spaniards at the Pyrenean treaty, war, if the support of the duke not to assist the Portuguese, who of Anjou makes it necessary? were then at war with them., no, sure; we shall never think Never was treaty made with ourselves in a condition to break more folemnity; and yet what with him; nor shall we be able did those engagements signify? to persuade our allies to it. No all the time the treaty was makpart therefore will be left us, but ing, France was concerting meato submit to such a peace with fures to support the Portuguese ; his grandson, as he shall in his and the king, the present king, pleasure think fit to prescribe. I who was then but young in perneed not inlarge upon the diffi- fidy, had so little regard to cover culties of making war with Spain, or palliate what he did, that he after what I have said in my first fent, in the face of all the world, letter. It is easy to see how the an army to the assistance of those, duke of Anjou may find us work whose defence he had renounced, enough for two or three

years, commanded by a marshal of if he da but avoid coming to an France. And can we, after such


1709. them as good a barrier for themselves, as they could ask.

The states, contrary to the expectation of France, resolved



a man

an instance, depend upon his allies most certainly would not
word ? has he not much greater continue to keep up their armies,
temptation to aflift Spain against were a peace with France once
us, than he had then to support made. But let us now suppose
the Portuguese against Spain? is they would, how would this
not the honour of his grandson, mend the matter if we keep
the interest of his family, and on foot as great armies, as we
the acquisition of fo great a mo have now, we should be no more
narchy of infinitely more concern at liberty to send men into Spain,
to him, than the defence of than we are now. And, if we
Portugal could be?


any considerable number to must be blind, not to see there Spain, they would be wanted is no comparison between the elsewhere, and the king of two cases; and it is inexcusable, France would have nothing to when we are sensible of this, to fear from us, for want of a sufthink, that a prince, who has ficient strength to act offensively, been fo false in one instance, can in case we should think ourselves be ever true in the other. sufficiently provoked to it by any

The sum of this argument is, thing he does in violation of the that if a separate peace be made treaty; nay, considering the with France upon the foot of number of towns given up to the the preliminaries, without the allies, which all must have gar37th article, nothing can hinder risons in them, and those not France from afsifting the duke of very small ones, to keep their Anjou: and, if he be assisted by new subjects in awe, we should France, we can never be able to

want a greater army in Flanders
drive him out of Spain: and than before, to be in a condi-
consequently, if Spain be ever tion to act offensively. And, if
had, it must be by treaty. If such armies must be kept up, I
therefore no peace can be a good cannot fee why they should not
one without Spain, then the be employed; that is, why we
37th article is necessary in order may not as well continue the
to a good peace : which is the war, or to what purpose we
point I was to prove.

should make peace.
I know but one thing can be continuing the war seems much
faid against what I have advan more eligible than such a peace,
ced upon this head; and that

for this plain reason, that France
is, That the allies, though they would certainly make a great
make peace with France, should advantage of peace, while we
ftill keep up their armies, and must, under the name of peace,
then France will not dare to give continue in a state of war, with-
the duke of Anjou any great af.

oựt the fruits of it.

For exsistance. But, firit, I have al ample, all we have done, this ready shewn, that this is a very campaign, would upon that supunreasonable fuppofition; the position have been undone ;


To me


to adhere firmly to their confederates, and to enter into no separate treaty but in conjunction with their allies. However upon the arrival of monsieur Rouillé at Antwerp, they appointed monsieur Buys, pensionary of Amsterdam, and monsieur Vanderdussen, pensionary of Gouda, to have a conference with him at Moerdyke. Upon the report of what passed in this interview, the states permitted Rouillé to come to Woerden, a place between Leyden and Utrecht, that he might be nearer at hand for the intended negotiation : and then the deputies of the states had another conference with him, in which he made fome loose proposals towards a general peace, which, however, he refused to give in writing. The states general, being still cautious of making any advances in so important an affair, without the participation of their allies, gave immediate notice of what had paffed, to the courts of Vienna and Great-Britain. Prince Eugene, who, during this interval, was gone to Vienna, returned from thence to Brussels, on the 27th of March, N. S. with full powers from his imperial majesty; and, on the 8th of April, came to the Hague, where she duke of Marlborough likewise arrived the next day from England. These two great men had a long conference with the grand pensionary Heinsius, monsieurs Buys and Vanderduffen, and other deputies of the states, where they debated the overtures made on the part of France ; which being thought insufficient to be the ground of a treaty of peace, orders were given for carrying on the warlike preparations with all poflible application and diligence, in order to open the cam

and we should have been so much excepted out of the number of farther off than we are, from the towns, that they have preputting France under a necessity tended to give as an equivalent. to give us Spain. For though Now this and the other conthe successes of this year (1710] quests of this campaign have have been so flighted, as to be brought us much nearer to our thought not worth mentioning, end, than if our armies had gone where one would have most ex out of the field, as they came in, pected it; I can tell you, Doway and had done nothing. I must alone is in the opinion of France therefore fill maintain, that upof that mighty consequence, that on all suppositions the thirtyin all the negotiations, that have seventh-article is necessary to a been carried on, since the refusal good peace, unless some real of the preliminaries, to find an expedient could be found out, expedient for the thirty-seventh which has hitherto been in vain article, Doway has been always looked for.

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1709. paign, as soon as the backwardness of the season would pera mmit, and pursue the late advantages with the utmost vigour.

The deputies of the states having informed Rouillé, that h's
overtures were not satisfactory, that minister sent an express
to Paris for new instructions. This threw the French court
into great uneasiness ; for as, on the one hand, they were
resolved not to comply with the demand of the confederates,
in giving up the whole monarchy of Spain; fo, on the
other hand, the great difficulties they laboured under, which
were much increased by the general scarcity of corn, and
other povisions, occasioned by the great severity of the pre-
ceding winter, laid them under a necessity of keeping up the
finking fpirits of the people with hopes, at least, of putting
a speedy end to the war, by a peace. Rouillé's express was
therefore immediately fent back, with directions (as appeared
in the sequel) to that minister, to amuse the allies with a
seeming compliance with all their demands, but not to figni
any thing, that should be drawn up in writing.

The pensionary having, by order of the states, made a
report to to the duke of Marlborough, of what passed at the
conference, which had been held by Buys and Vanderduflen,
with the French minister, after the return of the courier
from France, the duke resolved to return to Great Britain,
to acquaint the queen with the progress of this important

The duke therefore imbarked the 13th of April, and arrived three days after at London. During this second abfence of the duke, the French court, to cover their artifices with an air of fincerity, sent the marquis de Torcy, secretary of state for foreign affairs, to Holland, thinking the presence of so great a minister might have some influence on the states. Upon his arrival at the Hague, the passport, by which he came, having been sent blank by Rouillé, he was there two days before his quality was known. After this he paid a visit to the pensionary, and offered to communicate the proposals, which he had to make; but that minifter told him, he could not confer with him, nor see his proposals, without leave from the states. However, the states having confented, that he, together with the deputies, who had been appointed to receive the proposals of Rouillé, should meet the marquis, and hear what he had to offer, they had an interview with him the next day. The result of this conference being communicated to the states-general, the pensionary had orders to inform the French minister, that they could not give him any resolution, till they were


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