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supplies found necessary to the prosecution of this war, 6 with an augmentation of those forces, which, in con

junction with our allies, have, by God's assistance, pro6 cured us

the present advantages over the common enemy.

“ Your chearfulness in giving such large supplies at this “ juncture, and the ready advances, which have been made " for their being effectual, with so little burden to the “ people, shew, you perfectly understand how to make a “ right use of our past fucceffes, and that nothing is too dif“ ficult for so dutiful and affectionate subjects, acting in de6. fence of so good a cause.

My lords and gentlemen, “ Her majesty, through the whole course of her reign,

having been desirous to fhew all possible instances of good“ nefs and clemency to her subjects, hath now, for the “ strengthening the union, and quieting the minds of all “ her subjects throughout the united kingdom, thought fit to grant

an act of

grace and free pardon, in a more «« full and beneficial manner, than hath been formerly used; “not doubting, but all her people will make a right use “ of, and suitable returns on their part, for fo extraordi

nary an indulgence.

“ Her majesty, having also been graciously pleased to “ give the royal affent to the several bills you have present" ed during this session, commands us to observe to you

on that occasion, that the life and benefit of all laws, “how wisely foever they are framed, do chiefly consist in a " due and regular execution of them, and therefore to ex“hort you, that, when you return to your countries, you “ would think it indispensably your duty, to set a good ex“ ample towards an impartial and steady observation of the " many good laws, which have been enacted (especially “ since the late revolution) and which fall within your pro“vince to execute ; it being but too evident, that the de“ fect at present attending us is not so much the want of “ new Jaws, as the neglect and disregarding those already " made."

After this the parliament was prorogued to the 19th of May,

Great froft,

The severity of the winter-season was very remarkable Hifte of Eure this year; for it began to freeze, the night before Christ


mas-day, with great violence, and not long after fell great 1709. snows. Those, who compared the great frost in 1683-4 with this, observed, that the first was generally a bright one, and continued above two months without interruption; but the latter mostly dark, and with some intervals lasted a month longer; during which, many cattle, especially sheep, and likewise birds, perished. The Thames was frozen over, and, on the 3d of January, people began to erect booths, and set up tents on the ice. It was also observed, that the summer, which succeeded the frost in 1683-4, was excessively hot and dry, affording in general great plenty of things necessary for human life; but this proved very near as comfortless as the winter, by reason of the coldners and moisture of the air, pouring almost continual rains on the earth, which, as it retarded the maturity of the fruits, fo, in many places, occasioned a thin harvest, and this a scarcity of corn. This great frost was general in Europe, but most severely felt in France, where, in most places, the fruit-trees were killed, and the corn frozen in the ground, which occasioned there a dreadful calamity and defolation.

Two young prinçes, near relations to the czar of Muf- Two Murcovy, arriving in London in January, the queen gave or-covite ders for their being entertained at her charge, and attended Princes en by her officers; the princes, to shew their grateful fense of the queen, these favours, desired an audience, to which, being introduced by Mr. Boyle, they inade their compliments to her majesty in Latin, acknowledging, with great respects, the fingular marks of kindness, which she was pleased to heap upon them; and, at the same time, congratulated her upon the signal success of her victorious arms, and wished her a long continuation of the fame. To which the queen answered, “That she had so much esteem and friendship for his • czarish majesty, that she could not but be very well plea« sed to see any fo nearly related to him in her kingdoms,

and have an opportunity of thewing her kindness and di<stinction to them. She likewise thanked them for their congratulations and good wishes,' adding, “That she

would endeavour to make their stay here as agreeable to " them, as the could. Besides this compliment paid to the Trial about czar, in order to soften his resentment of the late affront the affair of offered to his ambassador, an information was tried at the

ambalador. court of Queen's-Bench, before the lord-chief-justice Holt, for the queen, against Thomas Mortan the laceman, an thirteen others, for meeting, consulting, and conspiring to


the Russian


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1709. arrest and imprison the Muscovite ambassador, of which they
wins were found guilty, the special matter of the privilege of

ambassadors, to be argued before the judges the next term.
There were present in court the earl of Sunderland, Mr. fe,
cretary Boyle, the lord Hallifax, and several other persons
of quality (0),


(0) The Muscovite ambassa- oned none but the imperial he. dor, seeing the slowness of the reditary prince within the verge judicial proceedings in England, of his auguft house: that thefe wrote expoftulatory letters to were two young

lords, who were Mr. Boyle, who át ļast assured a-kin to him, and were travelhim, That the laws of the king- ling incognito, but he did not dom could not admit of a final desire they should be defrayed decision till the next term : that by any power, having wherenothing had been omitted to pro- withal to bear their own charges. cure all reparation, which the Several other letters passed beutmost rigour of law could af tween Mr, secretary Boyle and ford : that a bill had, by the Mr. D’Ayrolle, the British sequeen's order, been brought in- cretary at the Hague'; but it to the parliament for securing having been found impracticable the privileges of ambassadors and in England to inflict any legal foreign minifters, to fhew how punishment on those, who had far the detested the violence of affronted the ambassador, it was fered to bis excellency's perfon at last agreed between the two and character : that the queen courts, that the queen, by way had no sooner notice, that the of satisfaction, should make fotwo young Muscovite princes, lemn excuses for the insufficiency pelations of the czar, were ar of our former laws in that be pived in her kingdom, but the half. This was accordingly done gave orders for their reception. by Mr, Whitworth, the queen's In answer to this letter, the am envoy extraordinary to the czar, bassador replied, That if it was in a speech at his public audi in the queen's power to confult ence, on the 8th of February, the parliament about a law to 1709-10. Upon which the czar secure the immunities of foreign prdered his minifters to settle the ministers, could not due mea affair with him in a conference, sures have been taken at the and the following articles were same time for reparation of the agreed on ; 1. That the czarish pait affront? that it was a very majesty accepted of the excuses, casy matter to do it, and was and was willing to forget the cri what she herself had caused to be minal proceedings of the authors done in the case of her ambaf- of the affront, and desired they sador the earl of Manchester at might be discharged. 2. That Venice. That' as to the ha fatisfaction should be given to pours lately done to two young the ambassador by a letter from noblemen, who were taken for the queen to repair his honour; Muscovite princes, the çzar reck, and by a reimbursement of aļi


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On the 3d of February, the queen, in council, was plea

1709. sed to declare, · That, the public business increasing, her s majesty had thought fit to appoint a third secretary of state The duke of

of Great-Britain, but that the intended, nevertheless, to made secreta

continue the foreign affairs, for the present, in the course ry of ftatc, of dispatch they were now in.' Upon this the duke of Queensberry was made third secretary of state, and took for one of his under secretaries Nicholas Rowe, famous for his dramatic performances.

The convocation was summoned, chosen and returned as The convothe new parliament was. It was too evident, that the same cation put off

by proroga ill temper, that had appeared in former convocations, did tion still prevail, though not with such a majority : when the day came, in which it was to be opened, a writ was sent from the queen to the archbishop, ordering him to prorogue the convocation for some months : and, at the end of these, there came another writ, ordering a further prorogation: so the convocation was not opened during this session of parliament; by this, a present stop was put to the factious temper of those, who studied to recommend themselves by embroiling the church. This did not cure them; for they continued still by libels and 'false stories to animate their party. The most effectual encouragement to that end was, the secret infinuation that the queen's heart was with them: that though the war, and the other circumstances of her affairs, obliged her at present to favour the moderate party, yet, as soon as a peace brought on a better settlement, they promised themselves all favour at her hands. It was not certain, that they had then any ground for this, or that she herself, or any by her order, gave them these hopes ; but this is certain, that many things might have been done to extinguish those hopes, which were not done: so that they seemed to be left to please themselves with those expectations, which kept still life in their party; and indeed it was but too visible, that the much greater part of the clergy were in a very ill temper, and under very bad influences; enemies to the toleration, and foured against the dislenters, the costs and damages he had been ed to be offered him. 4. That at on account of the affront.

3. his czarish majesty would acThat the ambassador should de- quaint the queen, that he was mand his letter of recredence, content with his fatisfaction, by which he had refused to accept, a letter, which should be delias well as the usual present and vered to Mr. Whitworth. the yatch, which the queen cauf




About this time was published a letter from a gentleman w in Scotland to his friend in England, against the facramental A letter a- test ; as inconsistent with the union, dangerous to the ecclegainst the

fiaftical constitution of North-Britain, and to such parts of Sacramental

their civil constitution as are reserved to them: inconsistent, Calamy. with the civil interest of Great-Britain in general ; contra

rý to the design of our Saviour's institution of the Lord'sfupper, and to the doctrine of the church of England: and an apology for this letter.

The test-act is here represented as contrary to the rules of religion, because it requires an end in receiving the facrament, that must prophane it, and such as bears no proportion to the original design of it; and usurps an authority, which no power on earth can lay any just claim to, to apa ply divine institutions to such ends, as only serve the interest of politic societies; and obliges such as have any civil post to take the sacrament, without any regard to the fitness which the law of Christrequires, for that folemnity. It looks as if it was no matter, how ill a character a person bore, if it can be covered with the name of churchman which shews, that it is not the honour of religion, but the

secular interest of a party that is principally regarded. Condemned

Whilst the house of commons, in January, were confiby the com- dering a bill for the speedy and efféctual recruiting the land

forces and marines, by encouraging the parishes to provide Pr. H.C. them, this letter against the test was dispersed by persons

unknown, at the door of the house. It was a snare laid for the whig-members. By approving the letter and abolishing the test, which bore so hard upon the diffenters, and excluded the most rigid from places of trust, they alarmed the church, and furnished a specious pretence of asserting, the church was in danger. If the test was preferved, notwithstanding the reasons alledged against it in the letter, the difputes about occafional conformity, which had been so troublesome in the former parliaments, would have revived and produced the same animofities in this. The commons, being aware of these things, avoided the snare, by condemning the letter, upon a complaint made to them of it, to be burnt for a scandalous, feditious libel, and the author and

printer to be enquired after. Negotiations By this time the negotiations for a peace were begun at for a peace, the Hague (p). It has been already observed, that, foon

after Lamberti,

(p) Dr. Hare in his piece inti- treaty peace in 1709 considered:

tuled, The negociations for a Marlb.

in a third letter to a tory.member


to be burnt



Conduct of the d. of

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