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3. Lectures on the Applications of Chemistry and

Geology to Agriculture. By JAMES F. W. JOHN-

STON,

F. R. S., etc.

4. A Treatise on the Forces which produce the

Organization of Plants; with an Appendix. By

John WILLIAM DRAPER, M. D.

VII. ExpedITIONS TO SANTA FÉ.

196

1. Commerce of the Prairies : or the Journal of

a Santa Fé Trader, during eight Expeditions across

the great Western Prairies. By Josiah GREGG.

2. Narrative of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition ;

comprising a Description of a Tour through Texas,

and across the great Southwestern Prairies. Ву

Geo. Wilkins KendaLL.

VIII. Neal's History OF THE PURITANS

214

The History of the Puritans, or Protestant Non-

conformists, from the Reformation in 1517, to the

Revolution in 1688. By DANIEL NEAL, M. A.

Revised, corrected, and enlarged, with Additional

Notes. By JOHN O. CHOULES, M. A.

IX. MR. MANN AND THE TEACHERS OF The Boston Schools 224

1. Remarks on the Seventh Annual Report of the

Hon. Horace Mann, Secretary of the Massachusetts

Board of Education.

2. Observations on a Pamphlet entitled “ Remarks

on the Seventh Annual Report,” &c. [By GEORGE

B. EMERSON.)

3. Reply to the “Remarks” of Thirty-one Boston

Schoolmasters on the Seventh Annual Report, &c.

By Horace Mann, Secretary of the Board.

X. CRITICAL NOTICES.

1. Sparks's Library of American Biography 246

2. Beck's Syntax of the Latin Language

249

3. Letters of Horace Walpole

250

4. Notes on Cuba

251

5. Miss Abbot's Stories for Children

253

6. Tyler on the Baconian Philosophy

254

New PUBLICATIONS Received

255

Note to ARTICLE IX. .

256

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NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

No. CXXVI.

JANUARY, 184 5.

12mo. pp:

Art. I. — 1. A Treatise on the Medical Jurisprudence of

Insanity. By I. Ray, M. D., Superintendent of the
Maine Insane Hospital. Second Edition, with Additions.
Boston : W. D. Ticknor & Co. 1844.

490. 2. Report of the Trial of Abner Rogers, Jr., indicted

for the Murder of Charles Lincoln, Jr., late Warden of the Massachusetts State Prison, before the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts holden at Boston, January 30, 1844. By GEORGE TYLER BIGELOW and George Bemis, Esqrs., Counsel for the Defend

ant. Boston : Little and Brown. 8vo. pp. 286. 3. The Plea of Insanity in Criminal Cases. By Forbes

Winslow, Esq., Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. Boston : Little and Brown. 1843. 12mo. pp. 111.

The great prevalence of the disease of insanity, and especially its remarkable apparent increase of late years, which li has nowhere been more observable than in this country, have directed much attention towards it, and caused its phenomena, remedies, and consequences to be studied with great zeal and considerable success. We say apparent increase, because it is quite certain, that the progress of science, or a change in the system of classifying diseases, has recently brought very many cases under this category, which were formerly either ranked under a different head, or else not noticed at all; and because, from the multiplication of public VOL. LX. No. 126.

1

asylums for the treatment of the insane, and from the philanthropic exertions of individuals, many a poor maniac has been rescued from some dark cell in a workhouse or jail, where he raved forgotten except by one or two brutal attendants, and has been brought to swell the number of patients supported at the public charge. Make

Make proper allowance for the recent effect of these circumstances upon the statistics of insanity, and we do not know of any sufficient proof, that the disease is now actually upon the increase, or that it wears a more threatening aspect than in former years. But the facts which have been brought to light respecting its prevalence and its consequences are afflicting enough. The vast ranges of buildings which crown one eminence in Worcester, and another in Charlestown, when we consider that they were erected solely for the accommodation of the insane in the single State of Massachusetts, with less than a million of inbabitants, though they may make us proud of the munificent philanthropy of the builders, affect us with far different feelings when we think of the pitiable fate of the multitude within their walls. In a former article, * we laid before our readers the means of estimating the probable number of the insane in this State, and it is not necessary to revise the gloomy computation. Enough was shown of the extent of the calamity to commend the subject to the earnest attention of every reflecting man and sincere philanthropist.

The facts, appalling as they may seem, may not be enough to support the startling theory which has been advanced, that insanity increases with the progress of civilization, and that the number of its victims in any country will be found in exact proportion to the diffusion of knowledge and the general cultivation of the intellectual powers among its inhabitants. Upon this hypothesis, the disease is like a canker, which appears only in the ripening fruit, while it is unseen in the blos: som and the germ. Fortunately it is only a hypothesis, and one which it is impossible to substantiate by testimony, from the difficulty of ascertaining the extent to which the disease prevails among half-civilized or barbarous nations. Nor is it supported by a priori considerations; for excessive activity of mind - the undue tension of the intellectual powers - is far from being the only cause of the malady. Moral causes are at least

* N. A. Review, Vol. LVI. p. 172.

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